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Number of results: 302

Predicting criminal incidents on the basis of non-verbal behaviour: The role of experience

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (3): 703–716
Abstract: 

Do experienced police officers have a superior ability to detect impending criminal acts?

In order to test this Hypothesis 10 Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) clips were collected from real criminal events that occurred in and around Nottingham City Centre in the UK. Ten control clips were filmed specifically or chosen from existing footage to match the criminal clips, but did not contain any criminal activity. All clips ended abruptly, immediately before a real criminal act unfolding, or a non-criminal act in the control clips, and either the screen turned black, masking the video scene, or remained frozen on the final frame of the edited clip. Thirty police officers and 30 control participants watched the clips. At the end of each clip, participants were asked to predict what would happen next. Signal detection analysis indicated marginal evidence that police show greater accuracy in predicting clips that cut to a black screen compared with the general public. A stronger effect was noted in the analysis of the criterion, with police officers much more likely to predict a crime regardless of whether there was one. These findings provide promising evidence of experiential differences between police officers and the general public when identifying criminal and antisocial behaviour in CCTV footage, though the greater criterion bias effect suggests that experience may oversensitise individuals to non-verbal cues.

EU and NATO cybersecurity strategies and national cyber security strategies: a comparative analysis

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (4): 1151–1168
Abstract: 

Given the global nature of cyber threats, assurance of a cyber security policy is very important not only at organization level but also at national level.

Currently, cyber security as such is not independently regulated internationally; therefore the role of the EU and NATO in ensuring cyber security has become particularly significant. This article presents a study which compares the cyber security policies of the EU and NATO organizations. An analysis of how national cyber security strategies correspond with the cyber security policies and the strategic directions of these organizations has been carried out. We have also carried out a comparative study of the provision of national cyber security strategies of the EU and NATO. The study reveals that regardless of similar goals, namely assurance of cyber resilience, the selected harmonization and coordination approaches, as well as norms of national cybersecurity strategies, differ.

Big hover or big brother? Public attitudes about drone usage in domestic policing activities

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (4): 1027–1044
Abstract: 

Unmanned aerial systems (that is, UAS or drones) have been increasingly proposed and used by federal and state law enforcement agencies as an evolving technology for general surveillance, crime det

ection and criminal investigations. However, the use of UAS technology, in general, and within the particular context of domestic policing activities raises serious concerns about personal privacy and the greater intrusion of new forms of ‘big brother’ surveillance in people’s daily lives. On the basis of a national survey, the current study provides empirical evidence on public attitudes about UAS usage in various policing activities. Socio-demographic differences in the public support for drone usage in this context are also examined. Our general findings of context-specific variability in public support for UAS usage in policing operations are discussed in terms of their implications for developing public policy.

Cross-border crime patterns unveiled by exchange of DNA profiles in the European Union

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 29 (4): 640-660
Abstract: 

The aim of this study was to make a head start with unveiling transnational spatial patterns in offending.

To that end, data are used from DNA profile exchange between The Netherlands and 18 other EU member states that have implemented EU legislation on forensic cooperation. Information was collected on all DNA stains entered into the database, including the region in The Netherlands where the stain was secured, the type of crime and how many matching DNA profiles had been identified in each of the other 18 countries. The results suggest that currently the profiles of offenders who are active in other Prüm countries make up for about 4 per cent of all DNA stain profiles in the Dutch DNA database. The highest share of cross-border matches is found in the southeastern part of The Netherlands, where The Netherlands borders one of the most densely populated regions of Germany.

Security versus Justice? Police and Judicial Cooperation in the European Union

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

One of the most dynamic areas of EU law since the great changes brought to the EU constitutional order by the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999 has been cooperation in the fields of policing and criminal ju

stice. Both fields have already been the subject of substantial legislative effort in the EU and an increasing amount of judicial activity in the European Court of Justice. In 2007 - after the Constitutional Treaty of 2004 failed - the new Reform Treaty planned very substantive changes to these policies. Bringing together a wide-ranging set of topics and contributors, this book enables readers to understand these changes by examining three key questions: how did we get to the Reform Treaty; what have been - and still are - the key struggles in competence; and how do the changes fit into the transformation of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the EU?

Transnational Organized Crime and European Union: Aspects and Problems

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Chapter in: Human Rights in European Criminal Law, Stefano Ruggeri (ed.), Springer, pp 201-214
Abstract: 

The fight against criminal organizations and their ability to carry out illegal activities beyond the national borders has represented a “bridge head” in the European path towards the harmonization

of criminal laws in the member states. After considering the role played by the harmonization of criminal law in the European Union treaties, the study underlines how the difficulty in defining the concept of transnational organized crime could result in an excessive European intervention. In order to avoid such a risk, it is useful to refer to other relevant international sources, like the 2000 Palermo UN Convention, and also to recent European documents on the matter (in particular, a Resolution by the European Parliament of the 25th October 2011). The final part of the paper is dedicated to the necessity to reconsider the traditional guarantees in the new European dimension, especially in the light of the European Court of Human Rights and the European Charter of Fundamental Rights and their counterweight activity to prevent an unbalanced European intervention against organized crime.

How Civil Wars Help Explain Organized Crime—and How They Do Not

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Journal of Conflict Resolution, 59 (8): 1517–1540
Abstract: 

Large-scale organized crime occupies a gray zone between ordinary crime and political violence.

The unprecedented scale of drug-related crime in Mexico has led to its description as an insurgency or even a civil war, a conceptual move that draws on recent studies that have associated civil war with large-scale criminality. By questioning both the “crime as civil war” and “civil war as crime” models, I argue that instead of folding the two phenomena, we should draw primarily from the micro-dynamics of civil war research program to identify areas of potentially productive cross-fertilization. I point to four such areas, namely, onset and termination, organization, combat and violence, and governance and territory. I conclude by sketching a theoretical and empirical agenda for the study of large-scale organized crime.

UN Human Security Handbook

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security
Abstract: 

Prepared as a guide for practitioners and policymakers who plan to integrate the human security approach into their work, this handbook provides an overview of the principles that embody the approa

ch and its added value. It introduces a step-by-step analytical process for the design and implementation of human security initiatives, and provides guidance for assessing the added value of the approach.  A detailed case study from the Turkana region of Kenya demonstrates the application of human security tools to analyse a complex situation and develop an integrated multisectoral approach. This is followed with additional examples of programmes supported under the United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security (UNTFHS).

The Liberal Way of War - Killing to Make Life Live

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

The liberal way of war and the liberal way of rule are correlated; this book traces that correlation to liberalism's original commitment to 'making life live'.

Committed to making life live, liberalism is committed to waging war on behalf of life, specifically to promote the biopolitical life of species being; what the book calls 'the biohuman'. Tracking the advent of the age of life-as-information - complex, adaptive and emergent - while contrasting biopolitics with geopolitics, the book details how and why the liberal way of rule wages war on the human in the cause of instituting the biohuman. Contingent and emergent, the biohuman is however continuously also becoming-dangerous to itself. It therefore requires constant surveillance to anticipate the threats it presents to its own flourishing. The book explains how, in making life live, liberal rule finds its expression, today, in making the biohuman live the emergency of its emergence. Thus does liberal peace become the continuation of war by other means. Just as the information and molecular revolutions have combined to transform liberal military-strategic thinking so also has it contributed to the discourse of global danger through which global liberal governance currently legitimates the liberal way of war.

Biopolitics of Security - A Political Analytic of Finitude

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Taking its inspiration from Michel Foucault, this volume of essays integrates the analysis of security into the study of modern political and cultural theory. Explaining how both politics and

security are differently problematised by changing accounts of time, the work shows how, during the course of the 17th century, the problematisation of government and rule became newly enframed by a novel account of time and human finitude, which it calls ‘factical finitude’. The correlate of factical finitude is the infinite, and the book explains how the problematisation of politics and security became that of securing the infinite government of finite things. It then explains how concrete political form was given to factical finitude by a combination of geopolitics and biopolitics. Modern sovereignty required the services of biopolitics from the very beginning. The essays explain how these politics of security arose at the same time, changed together, and have remained closely allied ever since. In particular, the book explains how biopolitics of security changed in response to the molecularisation and digitalisation of Life, and demonstrates how this has given rise to the dangers and contradictions of 21st century security politics.

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