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Number of results: 287

How Civil Wars Help Explain Organized Crime—and How They Do Not

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Journal of Conflict Resolution, 59 (8): 1517–1540
Abstract: 

Large-scale organized crime occupies a gray zone between ordinary crime and political violence.

The unprecedented scale of drug-related crime in Mexico has led to its description as an insurgency or even a civil war, a conceptual move that draws on recent studies that have associated civil war with large-scale criminality. By questioning both the “crime as civil war” and “civil war as crime” models, I argue that instead of folding the two phenomena, we should draw primarily from the micro-dynamics of civil war research program to identify areas of potentially productive cross-fertilization. I point to four such areas, namely, onset and termination, organization, combat and violence, and governance and territory. I conclude by sketching a theoretical and empirical agenda for the study of large-scale organized crime.

UN Human Security Handbook

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security
Abstract: 

Prepared as a guide for practitioners and policymakers who plan to integrate the human security approach into their work, this handbook provides an overview of the principles that embody the approa

ch and its added value. It introduces a step-by-step analytical process for the design and implementation of human security initiatives, and provides guidance for assessing the added value of the approach.  A detailed case study from the Turkana region of Kenya demonstrates the application of human security tools to analyse a complex situation and develop an integrated multisectoral approach. This is followed with additional examples of programmes supported under the United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security (UNTFHS).

The Liberal Way of War - Killing to Make Life Live

Document type: 
Book
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Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

The liberal way of war and the liberal way of rule are correlated; this book traces that correlation to liberalism's original commitment to 'making life live'.

Committed to making life live, liberalism is committed to waging war on behalf of life, specifically to promote the biopolitical life of species being; what the book calls 'the biohuman'. Tracking the advent of the age of life-as-information - complex, adaptive and emergent - while contrasting biopolitics with geopolitics, the book details how and why the liberal way of rule wages war on the human in the cause of instituting the biohuman. Contingent and emergent, the biohuman is however continuously also becoming-dangerous to itself. It therefore requires constant surveillance to anticipate the threats it presents to its own flourishing. The book explains how, in making life live, liberal rule finds its expression, today, in making the biohuman live the emergency of its emergence. Thus does liberal peace become the continuation of war by other means. Just as the information and molecular revolutions have combined to transform liberal military-strategic thinking so also has it contributed to the discourse of global danger through which global liberal governance currently legitimates the liberal way of war.

Biopolitics of Security - A Political Analytic of Finitude

Document type: 
Book
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Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Taking its inspiration from Michel Foucault, this volume of essays integrates the analysis of security into the study of modern political and cultural theory. Explaining how both politics and

security are differently problematised by changing accounts of time, the work shows how, during the course of the 17th century, the problematisation of government and rule became newly enframed by a novel account of time and human finitude, which it calls ‘factical finitude’. The correlate of factical finitude is the infinite, and the book explains how the problematisation of politics and security became that of securing the infinite government of finite things. It then explains how concrete political form was given to factical finitude by a combination of geopolitics and biopolitics. Modern sovereignty required the services of biopolitics from the very beginning. The essays explain how these politics of security arose at the same time, changed together, and have remained closely allied ever since. In particular, the book explains how biopolitics of security changed in response to the molecularisation and digitalisation of Life, and demonstrates how this has given rise to the dangers and contradictions of 21st century security politics.

Feminist Security Studies - A Narrative Approach

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

The volume explicitly works toward an opening up of security studies that would allow for feminist (and other) narratives to be recognized and taken seriously as security narratives.

To make this possible, it presents a feminist reading of security studies that aims to invigorate the debate and radicalize critical security studies. Since feminism is a political project, and security studies are, at their base, about particular visions of the political and their attendant institutions, this is of necessity a political intervention. The book works through and beyond security studies to explore possible spaces where an opening of security, necessary to make way for feminist insights, can take place. While it develops and illustrates a feminist narrative approach to security, it is also intended as an intervention that challenges the politics of security and the meanings for security legitimized in existing practices.

The Ethical Subject of Security - Geopolitical Reason and the Threat Against Europe

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

While critical security studies largely concentrates on objects of security, this book focuses on the subject position from which ‘securitization’ and other security practices t

ake place. First, it argues that the modern subject itself emerges and is sustained as a function of security and insecurity. It suggests, consequently, that no analytic frame can produce or reproduce the subject in some original or primordial form that does not already reproduce a fundamental or structural insecurity. It critically returns, through a variety of studies, to traditionally held conceptions of security and insecurity as simple predicates or properties that can be associated or not to some more essential, more primeval, more true or real subject. It thus opens and explores the question of the security of the subject itself, locating, through a reconstruction of the foundations of the concept of security, in the modern conception of the subject, an irreducible insecurity. Second, it argues that practices of security can only be carried out as a certain kind of negotiation about values. The analyses in this book find security expressed again and again as a function of value cast in terms of an explicit or implicit philosophy of life, of culture, of individual and collective anxieties and aspirations, of expectations about what may be sacrificed and what is worth preserving. By way of a critical examination of the value function of security, this book discovers the foundation of values as dependent on a certain management of their own vulnerability, continuously under threat, and thus fundamentally and necessarily insecure.

Mental health stigma and barriers to mental health care for first responders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Journal of Psychiatric Research, 94: 218-229
Abstract: 

It is unclear how many first responders experience barriers to care and stigma regarding mental health care, and how this influences their help-seeking.

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on barriers to care and mental health stigma in first responders and their empirical relationship with psychosocial and psychiatric variables. The databases Medline, Embase PsycINFO, CINAHL, PILOTS, LILACS, Sociological Abstracts, SocINDEX, and Social Citation Index were searched to identify relevant studies. A quality assessment and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen articles met inclusion criteria, from which data from 12 samples were extracted for meta-analyses. All studies measured stigma regarding mental health care and 33.1% of first responders (95% CI 26.7–40.1; 12 individual samples) endorsed stigma items. The systematic review revealed that the most frequently endorsed items were fears regarding confidentiality and negative career impact. Five of 14 studies measured barriers to mental health care and 9.3% of first responders (95% CI 7.0–12.3; 4 individual samples) endorsed barriers to care items. The most frequently endorsed barriers were scheduling concerns and not knowing where to get help. Indications were found for more stigma and barriers in individuals with mental health problems. Stigma and barriers to care are experienced by a significant proportion of firs responders, which can potentially lead to delayed presentation in mental health care and therefore, increased risk of chronicity of post-trauma psychopathology for these groups. The current systematic review draws attention to the paucity of research in this area, particularly in non-Western samples.

Social Norms in the Aftermath of Ethnic Violence - Ethnicity and Fairness in Non-costly Decision Making

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Journal of Conflict Resolution, 58 (1): 93-119
Abstract: 

This study considers prospects for the revitalization of social norms after ethnic violence using a behavioral experiment in postwar Bosnia.

In the experiment, subjects are asked to distribute a ten-unit monetary sum between two anonymous recipients of random ethnicity. The results indicate a surprisingly high number of egalitarian distributions across ethnicity, which is interpreted as evidence of a norm of fairness. Discriminating behavior in the experiment is explained as a product of ethnic parochialism (rewarding co-ethnics and punishing non-co-ethnics). Overall, the experiment speaks to the resiliency of an important aspect of pro-social behavior after violence—impartiality in the treatment of others.

Ethnic Violence, Local Security and Return Migration: Enclave communities in Kosovo

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Migration, 55 (5): 122-135
Abstract: 

Forced migration has become commonplace in the international political landscape. In 2015, 60 million people were displaced by violence, more than ever before recorded (UNHCR, 2015).

While we know that violence leads to displacement, we know little about return migration after conflict – who comes back and where they settle. This article seeks to engage and supplement the literature on return migration after conflict, advocating for a broader understanding of the security choices made by displaced people. Emphasized here is the importance of a local understanding of safety and the role played by enclave communities in providing a secure context in which people can enjoy the society of their co-ethnics.

The Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict (2nd Edition)

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

A definitive global survey of the interaction of ethnicity, nationalism and politics, this handbook blends rigorous theoretically grounded analysis with empirically rich illustrations to provide a

state-of-the-art overview of the contemporary debates on one of the most pervasive international security challenges today. Fully updated for the second edition, the book includes a new section which offers detailed analyses of contemporary cases of conflict such as in Ukraine, Kosovo, the African Great Lakes region and in the Kurdish areas across the Middle East, thus providing accessible examples that bridge the gap between theory and practice. The contributors offer a 360-degree perspective on ethnic conflict: from the theoretical foundations of nationalism and ethnicity to the causes and consequences of ethnic conflict, and to the various strategies adopted in response to it. 

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