Knowledgebase

Number of results: 305

Human and National Security - Understanding Transnational Changes

Document type: 
Book
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Deliberately challenging the traditional, state-centric analysis of security, this book focuses on subnational and transnational forces—religious and ethnic conflict, climate change, pandemic disea

ses, poverty, terrorism, criminal networks and cyber attacks—that threaten human beings and their communities across state borders. Examining threats related to human security in the modern era of globalization, Reveron and Mahoney-Norris argue that human security is national security today, even for great powers.

Critical Approaches to Security - An Introduction to Theories and Methods

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Focusing on critical approaches to security, this new textbook offers readers both an overview of the key theoretical perspectives and a variety of methodological techniques. With a careful ex

plication of core concepts in each chapter and an introduction that traces the development of critical approaches to security, this textbook will encourage all those who engage with it to develop a curiosity about the study and practices of security politics. Challenging the assumptions of conventional theories and approaches, unsettling that which was previously taken for granted – these are among the ways in which such a curiosity works. Through its attention to the fact that, and the ways in which, security matters in global politics, this work will both pioneer new ways of studying security and acknowledge the noteworthy scholarship without which it could not have been thought.

Understanding Ethnic Conflict

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Understanding Ethnic Conflict provides all the key concepts needed to understand conflict among ethnic groups.

Including approaches from both comparative politics and international relations, this text offers a model of ethnic conflict's internationalization by showing how domestic and international actors influence a country's ethnic and sectarian divisions. Illustrating this model in five original case studies, the unique combination of theory and application in Understanding Ethnic Conflict facilitates more critical analysis of contemporary ethnic conflicts and the world's response to them.

European Union Internet Organised Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA) 2017

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
EUROPOL
Abstract: 

Each year, Europol’s European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) publishes the Internet Organised Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA), its flagship strategic report on key findings and emerging threats

and developments in cybercrime — threats that impact governments, businesses and citizens in the EU. The IOCTA provides key recommendations to law enforcement, policy makers and regulators to allow them to respond to cybercrime in an effective and concerted manner. The report focuses on the crime areas that fall under EC3’s mandate. These cybercrime priorities, which are determined by the EU Policy Cycle, are currently: Cyber-dependent crime, Online child sexual exploitation and Payment fraud. The most recent IOCTA also looks at an additional crime area, online criminal markets, both on the surface web and Darknet. It also addresses the convergence of cyber and terrorism. Another typical focus of the IOCTA are cross-cutting crime enablers, factors that straddle more than one crime area but are not necessarily inherently criminal themselves. These enablers include phishing/smishing/vishing, business email compromise, bulletproof hosting, anonymisation tools, criminal abuse of cryptocurrencies and money muling.

European Union Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment (SOCTA) 2017

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
EUROPOL
Abstract: 

The European Union (EU) Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment (SOCTA) 2017 is a detailed analysis of the threat of serious and organised crime facing the EU providing information for practi

tioners, decision-makers and the wider public. Europol is the EU’s law enforcement agency and assists the 28 EU Member States in their fight against serious international crime and terrorism. For the SOCTA 2017, Europol has undertaken the largest-ever data collection on serious and organised crime in the EU. Europol relied on thousands of contributions by Member States, Europol’s operational and strategic partners outside the EU and our institutional partners as well as operational intelligence held in Europol’s databases to produce the most detailed assessment of the nature and scale of criminal threats facing the EU and its Member States.

European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (Te-Sat) 2017

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
EUROPOL
Abstract: 

Europol’s annual EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) provides an overview of the terrorism phenomenon in the EU in a given year. The fight against terrorism is a top pri

ority for the EU and for Europol, and that means that TE-SAT is one of Europol’s most significant pieces of strategic analysis. It offers law enforcement officials, policymakers and the general public facts and figures on terrorism in the EU, while also identifying developing trends in this crime area, based on information that Member States make available to Europol. The report, which Europol has produced each year since 2007, charts the established and evolving drivers of terrorism. These drivers can change or vanish over time in response to political or socio-economic developments, merge with other ideologies or convictions and be the building blocks of new and sometimes very specific and highly individual motivations. The TE-SAT is prepared by experts at Europol and is based on information provided and verified by EU Member States and by Europol’s partners. It also relies on quantitative and qualitative data that Eurojust and the Member States provide.

Security officers’ attitudes towards training and their work environment

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 29 (3): 385–399
Abstract: 

A body of research has examined the nature of security work, legislative efforts and training requirements.

Fewer studies, however, have explored security officers’ perceptions of the training they received to perform their duties effectively. Although effort has been made to explore how useful the extant of training regime is for security officers in Canada (Manzo, 2009), it is unclear whether such views would hold among security officers in the United States, as both countries have minimal standard requirements regarding training. Building from Manzo’s (2009) research, we use in-depth interviews with 19 US security officers to explore security officers’ perceptions of training and what, if any, additional training security officers perceive that they need to perform their job effectively. Similar to Manzo’s work, we found that some of the officers improvise the needs and demands of their jobs with experiences drawn from prior employment; however, unlike Manzo’s study, security officers perceived a lack of adequate training to perform their tasks effectively and strongly endorsed the importance of and need for systematic and standardized training.

CCTV as a tool for early police intervention: Preliminary lessons from nine case studies

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (1): 247–265
Abstract: 

This study explores the prospect of utilizing CCTV as an early intervention mechanism to detect and disrupt street-level activity that can lead to violence.

The analysis focuses on nine case studies in Newark, NJ, incorporating data from several sources, including video footage, computer-aided dispatch (CAD) system incident data, CAD event chronologies and face-to-face interviews with CCTV operators. The findings suggest that the benefits offered by CCTV, namely the instantaneous discovery and reporting of crime, may be rendered inconsequential by the process times associated with the differential-response policy of police dispatch. Potential methods by which police can more proactively utilize CCTV to prevent crime are discussed.

Tackling cyber-terrorism: Balancing surveillance with counter-communication

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (2): 556–568
Abstract: 

Cyberspace has expanded the arena within which extremists and terrorists operate, posing a range of new challenges, many of which are still to be addressed.

From propaganda through recruitment to financing and attack planning, the use of the Internet has been growing in size, subtlety and sophistication, often blurring the legal with the illegal. Its interconnectivity, anonymity and affordability have served Muslim extremists, white supremacists and neo-Nazis alike. The present article analyses the online challenges posed by such groups, pointing out how they might be potentially hampered by combining the currently dominant online surveillance with marginalized cyber (counter-) communication. It also highlights the mechanisms of decision making based on matters of principle and honour, the factors that typically drive terrorist actions, showing the inadequacy of the traditional economic models, on which the surveillance largely depends and risks scaring extremists off the radar.

 

The economics of private security expenditure: The influence of perceptions of crime

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (2): 401-416
Abstract: 

Given that crime is a complex societal problem, the argument to embrace interdisciplinary scholarship seems an obvious one.

The study of crime and its control, however, has largely remained multidisciplinary in nature. In this article, we provide an interdisciplinary, accessible economic model for understanding choices by individuals, as well as demonstrate the application of self-reported life satisfaction data to the issue of property crime. We find that: individuals’ perceptions of crime in their local area are far greater than actual levels of crime; the gap between perceived and real crime is widening; and real crime rates detract more from an individual’s self-reported life satisfaction than perceived rates of crime. However, perceived rates of crime have an adverse impact on life satisfaction beyond those associated with real crime. Together, these results suggest that societal welfare could be significantly enhanced by reducing individual’s perceptions of crime, irrespective of any changes in the real crime rate.

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