Knowledgebase

Number of results: 287

Smart and secure borders through automated border control systems in the EU? The views of political stakeholders in the Member States

Document type: 
Scientific publication
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Publisher / Publication: 
European Security, 26 (2): 207-225
Abstract: 

The European Commission launched the “Smart Borders” policy process in 2011 to enhance border security in the European Union (EU) using technologisation and harmonisation.

This includes the use of automated border control (ABC) systems. The Member States crucially shape the process, weighing security technologies and costs, privacy and rights, and further institutional choices. We examine the views of political stakeholders in four Member States by conducting a systematic empirical and comparative study unprecedented in the existing, political-theory-inspired research. In our Q methodological experiments, political stakeholders in Finland, Romania, Spain and the UK rank-ordered a sample of statements on Smart Borders, ABC and harmonisation. The factor analysis of the results yielded three main views: the first criticising ABC as a security technology, the second welcoming the security gains of automation and the third opposing harmonised border control. While impeding harmonisation, the results offer a consensus facilitating common policy.

Crowdsourced surveillance and networked data

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Scientific publication
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Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 48 (1): 63–77
Abstract: 

Possibilities for crowdsourced surveillance have expanded in recent years as data uploaded to social networks can be mined, distributed, assembled, mapped, and analyzed by anyone with an uncensored

internet connection. These data points are necessarily fragmented and partial, open to interpretation, and rely on algorithms for retrieval and sorting. Yet despite these limitations, they have been used to produce complex representations of space, subjects, and power relations as internet users attempt to reconstruct and investigate events while they are developing. In this article, I consider one case of crowdsourced surveillance that emerged following the detonation of two bombs at the 2013 Boston Marathon. I focus on the actions of a particular forum on reddit.com, which would exert a significant influence on the events as they unfolded. The study describes how algorithmic affordances, internet cultures, surveillance imaginaries, and visual epistemologies contributed to the structuring of thought, action, and subjectivity in the moment of the event. I use this case study as a way to examine moments of entangled political complicity and resistance, highlighting the ways in which particular surveillance practices are deployed and feed back into the event amid its unfolding.

Knowledge of practice: A multi-sited event ethnography of border security fairs in Europe and North America

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 48 (3): 187–205
Abstract: 

This article takes the reader inside four border security fairs in Europe and North America to examine the knowledge practices of border security professionals.

Building on the border security as practice research agenda, the analysis focuses on the production, circulation, and consumption of scarce forms of knowledge. To explore situated knowledge of border security practices, I develop an approach to multi-sited event ethnography to observe and interpret knowledge that may be hard to access at the security fairs. The analysis focuses on mechanisms for disseminating and distributing scarce forms of knowledge, technological materializations of situated knowledge, expressions of transversal knowledge of security problems, how masculinities structure knowledge in gendered ways, and how unease is expressed through imagined futures in order to anticipate emergent solutions to proposed security problems. The article concludes by reflecting on the contradictions at play at fairs and how to address such contradictions through alternative knowledges and practices.

Tracing and explaining securitization: Social mechanisms, process tracing and the securitization of irregular migration

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 48 (6): 505-523
Abstract: 

This article offers a process-mechanism explanation of securitization.

To make the case for a process-mechanism account more concrete, I use interpretivist process tracing to explain the crisis episode of the Sun Sea, a Thai cargo ship carrying Sri Lankan asylum-seekers, and the securitization of irregular migration in Canada. Drawing on interviews and grey literature, the article shows how securitization was possible and under what conditions, and argues that ideational dispositions of security organizations induced state officials toward a security interpretation of the the Sun Sea. The article aims to demonstrate that process-mechanism explanations represent a compelling methodological alternative with which to trace and explain securitization. The article sees itself as part of a broader refinement of a sociological variant of securitization theory. It seeks to examine and enhance the contribution that this ‘post-Copenhagen’ approach – its core assumptions and theoretical framework – makes to the analysis of securitization.

Predicting criminal incidents on the basis of non-verbal behaviour: The role of experience

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (3): 703–716
Abstract: 

Do experienced police officers have a superior ability to detect impending criminal acts?

In order to test this Hypothesis 10 Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) clips were collected from real criminal events that occurred in and around Nottingham City Centre in the UK. Ten control clips were filmed specifically or chosen from existing footage to match the criminal clips, but did not contain any criminal activity. All clips ended abruptly, immediately before a real criminal act unfolding, or a non-criminal act in the control clips, and either the screen turned black, masking the video scene, or remained frozen on the final frame of the edited clip. Thirty police officers and 30 control participants watched the clips. At the end of each clip, participants were asked to predict what would happen next. Signal detection analysis indicated marginal evidence that police show greater accuracy in predicting clips that cut to a black screen compared with the general public. A stronger effect was noted in the analysis of the criterion, with police officers much more likely to predict a crime regardless of whether there was one. These findings provide promising evidence of experiential differences between police officers and the general public when identifying criminal and antisocial behaviour in CCTV footage, though the greater criterion bias effect suggests that experience may oversensitise individuals to non-verbal cues.

EU and NATO cybersecurity strategies and national cyber security strategies: a comparative analysis

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (4): 1151–1168
Abstract: 

Given the global nature of cyber threats, assurance of a cyber security policy is very important not only at organization level but also at national level.

Currently, cyber security as such is not independently regulated internationally; therefore the role of the EU and NATO in ensuring cyber security has become particularly significant. This article presents a study which compares the cyber security policies of the EU and NATO organizations. An analysis of how national cyber security strategies correspond with the cyber security policies and the strategic directions of these organizations has been carried out. We have also carried out a comparative study of the provision of national cyber security strategies of the EU and NATO. The study reveals that regardless of similar goals, namely assurance of cyber resilience, the selected harmonization and coordination approaches, as well as norms of national cybersecurity strategies, differ.

Big hover or big brother? Public attitudes about drone usage in domestic policing activities

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (4): 1027–1044
Abstract: 

Unmanned aerial systems (that is, UAS or drones) have been increasingly proposed and used by federal and state law enforcement agencies as an evolving technology for general surveillance, crime det

ection and criminal investigations. However, the use of UAS technology, in general, and within the particular context of domestic policing activities raises serious concerns about personal privacy and the greater intrusion of new forms of ‘big brother’ surveillance in people’s daily lives. On the basis of a national survey, the current study provides empirical evidence on public attitudes about UAS usage in various policing activities. Socio-demographic differences in the public support for drone usage in this context are also examined. Our general findings of context-specific variability in public support for UAS usage in policing operations are discussed in terms of their implications for developing public policy.

Cross-border crime patterns unveiled by exchange of DNA profiles in the European Union

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 29 (4): 640-660
Abstract: 

The aim of this study was to make a head start with unveiling transnational spatial patterns in offending.

To that end, data are used from DNA profile exchange between The Netherlands and 18 other EU member states that have implemented EU legislation on forensic cooperation. Information was collected on all DNA stains entered into the database, including the region in The Netherlands where the stain was secured, the type of crime and how many matching DNA profiles had been identified in each of the other 18 countries. The results suggest that currently the profiles of offenders who are active in other Prüm countries make up for about 4 per cent of all DNA stain profiles in the Dutch DNA database. The highest share of cross-border matches is found in the southeastern part of The Netherlands, where The Netherlands borders one of the most densely populated regions of Germany.

Security versus Justice? Police and Judicial Cooperation in the European Union

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

One of the most dynamic areas of EU law since the great changes brought to the EU constitutional order by the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999 has been cooperation in the fields of policing and criminal ju

stice. Both fields have already been the subject of substantial legislative effort in the EU and an increasing amount of judicial activity in the European Court of Justice. In 2007 - after the Constitutional Treaty of 2004 failed - the new Reform Treaty planned very substantive changes to these policies. Bringing together a wide-ranging set of topics and contributors, this book enables readers to understand these changes by examining three key questions: how did we get to the Reform Treaty; what have been - and still are - the key struggles in competence; and how do the changes fit into the transformation of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the EU?

Transnational Organized Crime and European Union: Aspects and Problems

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Chapter in: Human Rights in European Criminal Law, Stefano Ruggeri (ed.), Springer, pp 201-214
Abstract: 

The fight against criminal organizations and their ability to carry out illegal activities beyond the national borders has represented a “bridge head” in the European path towards the harmonization

of criminal laws in the member states. After considering the role played by the harmonization of criminal law in the European Union treaties, the study underlines how the difficulty in defining the concept of transnational organized crime could result in an excessive European intervention. In order to avoid such a risk, it is useful to refer to other relevant international sources, like the 2000 Palermo UN Convention, and also to recent European documents on the matter (in particular, a Resolution by the European Parliament of the 25th October 2011). The final part of the paper is dedicated to the necessity to reconsider the traditional guarantees in the new European dimension, especially in the light of the European Court of Human Rights and the European Charter of Fundamental Rights and their counterweight activity to prevent an unbalanced European intervention against organized crime.

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