Knowledgebase

Number of results: 287

The economics of private security expenditure: The influence of perceptions of crime

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (2): 401-416
Abstract: 

Given that crime is a complex societal problem, the argument to embrace interdisciplinary scholarship seems an obvious one.

The study of crime and its control, however, has largely remained multidisciplinary in nature. In this article, we provide an interdisciplinary, accessible economic model for understanding choices by individuals, as well as demonstrate the application of self-reported life satisfaction data to the issue of property crime. We find that: individuals’ perceptions of crime in their local area are far greater than actual levels of crime; the gap between perceived and real crime is widening; and real crime rates detract more from an individual’s self-reported life satisfaction than perceived rates of crime. However, perceived rates of crime have an adverse impact on life satisfaction beyond those associated with real crime. Together, these results suggest that societal welfare could be significantly enhanced by reducing individual’s perceptions of crime, irrespective of any changes in the real crime rate.

The economics of private security expenditure: The influence of perceptions of crime

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (2): 401-416
Abstract: 

Given that crime is a complex societal problem, the argument to embrace interdisciplinary scholarship seems an obvious one.

The study of crime and its control, however, has largely remained multidisciplinary in nature. In this article, we provide an interdisciplinary, accessible economic model for understanding choices by individuals, as well as demonstrate the application of self-reported life satisfaction data to the issue of property crime. We find that: individuals’ perceptions of crime in their local area are far greater than actual levels of crime; the gap between perceived and real crime is widening; and real crime rates detract more from an individual’s self-reported life satisfaction than perceived rates of crime. However, perceived rates of crime have an adverse impact on life satisfaction beyond those associated with real crime. Together, these results suggest that societal welfare could be significantly enhanced by reducing individual’s perceptions of crime, irrespective of any changes in the real crime rate.

Identifying First Responders Information Needs: Supporting Search and Rescue Operations for Fire Emergency Response

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, 8 (1): 25-46
Abstract: 

At the onset of an indoor fire emergency, the availability of the information becomes critical due to the chaotic situation at the emergency site.

Moreover, if information is lacking, not shared, or responders are too overloaded to acknowledge it, lives can be lost and property can be harmed. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to identify information items that are needed for first responders during search and rescue operations. The authors use an educational building fire emergency as a case and show how first responders can be supported by getting access to information that are stored in different information systems. The research methodology used was a combination of literature review, fire drills participation, and semi-structured interviews with first responders from different emergency organizations. The results presented are identified information items and an information model.

Building Resilience Through Effective Disaster Management: An Information Ecology Perspective

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, 9 (1): 11-26
Abstract: 

Existing literature argues that taking a holistic approach to disaster management is important for organizations in building resilience.

Theoretical underpinnings to achieve a holistic understanding, however, is lacking. This article applies the notion of an ecosystem as a holistic lens to understand complex disaster management. The paper reports two case studies from Japan and Nepal to illustrate how an ecosystem works during a disaster. The theoretical framework of information ecology is used in analyzing the cases. Based on the findings, the study shows three interconnected mechanisms that can build resilience of an ecosystem in a disaster management context, namely (1) coevolution, (2) collaboration, and (3) embeddedness of local knowledge. The authors argue that coevolution is a key to respond to constantly changing situations during a disaster. To accomplish ecosystem coevolution, creating a collaboration system with governments and local communities and embedding local knowledge into the system are essential. Furthermore, digital tools can play a critical role in the coevolution process.

Social Media and Emergency Services?: Interview Study on Current and Potential Use in 7 European Countries

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, 7 (2): 36-58
Abstract: 

Social media is much just used for private as well as business purposes, obviously, also during emergencies.

Emergency services are often confronted with the amount of information from social media and might consider using them – or not using them. This article highlights the perception of emergency services on social media during emergencies. Within their European research project EMERGENT, the authors therefore conducted an interview study with emergency service staff (N=11) from seven European countries and eight different cities. Their results highlight the current and potential use of social media, the emergency service's participation in research on social media as well as current challenges, benefits and future plans.

Police work and new ‘security devices’: A tale from the beat

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 46 (4): 384–400
Abstract: 

Mobile technologies have brought about major changes in police equipment and police work.

If a utopian narrative remains strongly linked to the adoption of new technologies, often formulated as ‘magic bullets’ to real occupational problems, there are important tensions between their ‘imagined’ outcomes and the (unexpected) effects that accompany their daily ‘practical’ use by police officers. This article offers an analysis of police officers’ perceptions and interactions with security devices. In so doing, it develops a conceptual typology of strategies for coping with new technology inspired by Le Bourhis and Lascoumes: challenging, neutralizing and diverting. To that purpose, we adopt an ethnographic approach that focuses on the discourses, practices and actions of police officers in relation to three security devices: the mobile digital terminal, the mobile phone and the body camera. Based on a case study of a North American municipal police department, the article addresses how these technological devices are perceived and experienced by police officers on the beat.

Reframing conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence: Bringing gender analysis back in

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 46 (6): 495–512
Abstract: 

Over the past decade, significant global attention has been paid to the issue of ‘widespread and systematic’ sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV).

To contribute to the prevention of SGBV, researchers have examined the relationship between the presence of armed conflict and the causes of SGBV. Much of this causal literature has focused on the individual and group perpetrator dynamics that fuel SGBV. However, we argue that research needs to lay bare the roots of SGBV in normalized and systemic gender discrimination. This article brings back structural gender inequality as a causal explanation for SGBV. In order to better understand and prevent SGBV, we propose a critical knowledge base that identifies causal patterns of gendered violence by building on existing indicators of gender discrimination.

Exercising emergencies: Resilience, affect and acting out security

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 47 (2): 99–116
Abstract: 

The idea of the complex emergency has given rise to the notion of resilience as a form of acting out security.

While security policies largely embrace the concept of resilience, critical scholarship points to the ‘responsibilization’ of the threatened subject, who is ‘programmed’ to act out security in a fashion that internalizes neoliberal values. This behaviour is trained through disciplinary practices, such as exercises, that seek to conduct the conduct of disaster populations. However, is the resilient subject only ever an instance of programmes and disciplinary power? This article takes a look at how self-organization comes about and how this process can be conceptualized through affect. It uses the setting of a cyber-security exercise to describe the dynamic interplay between affect and re/action. Building on Spinoza’s understanding of affect as the onset for action, the article discusses what affect theory contributes to resilience theory. It concludes that, as a form of acting out security, resilience incorporates both ‘programmed’ and ‘self-determined’ actions. Both forms of acting, however, imply that the resilient subject has no choice but to act out security. Given this fundamental restraint, powerlessness as the incapacity to act appears as one of the few instances that escape the governmental logic of resilience.

Smartening border security in the European Union: An associational inquiry

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 47 (4): 292–309
Abstract: 

This contribution asks how the reliance on mass dataveillance of travellers is sustained as a central policy option in the governance of EU border security.

It examines this question by analysing a recent initiative of the European Commission proposing the establishment of EU ‘smart borders’. The analysis draws from a set of thinking tools developed by the sociology of association in the field of science and technology studies. The contribution argues that in order to grasp policy outcomes such as smart borders, security studies would benefit from adopting a compositional outlook on agency, where action is seen as the effect of associated entities. Looking at the smartening of EU borders, the article finds that this process is held together by multiple translations and enrolments through which the technical side of dataveillance – platforms, automated gates, matching systems, and so forth – has become associated with the processes of policymaking on border security and sustains the furtherance of mass dataveillance.

Investing in disaster management capabilities versus pre-positioning inventory: A new approach to disaster preparedness

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Journal of Production Economics, 157: 261-272
Abstract: 

Disaster preparedness has been recognized as a central element in reducing the impact of disasters worldwide.

The usual methods of preparedness, such as pre-positioning relief inventory in countries prone to disasters, are problematic because they require high investment in various locations, due to the uncertainty about the timing and location of the next disaster. Investing in disaster management capabilities, such as training staff, pre-negotiating customs agreements with countries prone to disasters, or harmonizing import procedures with local customs clearance procedures, has been recognized as a way to overcome this constraint. By means of system dynamics modeling, we model the delivery process of ready-to-use therapeutic food items during the immediate response phase of a disaster, and we analyze the performance of different preparedness scenarios. We find that pre-positioning inventory produces positive results for the beneficiaries, but at extremely high costs. Investing in disaster management capabilities is an interesting alternative, as it allows lead time reductions of up to 67% (18 days) compared to a scenario without preparedness, at significantly lower costs than pre-positioning inventory. We find that the best performance can be achieved when combining both preparedness strategies, allocating part of the available funding to disaster management capabilities and part to pre-positioning inventory. We analyze 2828 such combined scenarios to identify the best mix of preparedness strategies for different levels of available funding. On the basis of our findings, we provide recommendations for relief organizations on how to allocate their preparedness budget.

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