Knowledgebase

Number of results: 305

The implementation of the EU arms export control system

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
Directorate-General for External Policies - Policy Department
Abstract: 

The aim of the workshop was to provide an overview of the EU arms export control system as well as options for improvement.

The main speaker, Dr Sibylle Bauer, Director of the Dual-Use and Arms Trade Control Programme at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), provided a brief overview of the main elements of the EU Common Position 2008/944/CFSP and then focused on aspects related to strengthening implementation of the eight criteria of the Common Position, the enhancement of compliance with the reporting obligation by Member States, possible ways to increase the transparency and public scrutiny of the export control framework and the development of the EU’s institutional framework in this context. Her presentation was followed by a debate involving members of the Security and Defence Committee of the European Parliament, the outcome of which may feed into the EP Annual Report on Arms Export.

Does the new EU Global Strategy deliver on security and defence?

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Directorate-General for External Policies - Policy Department
Abstract: 

The Global Strategy for the EU’s Foreign and Security Policy presented by High Representative Federica Mogherini on 28 June 2016 setsout a ‘Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe’, in resp

onse to the Member States’ request for a new framework in which the EU can tackle the challenges and key changes to the EU’s environment identified in a strategic assessment carried out in 2015. Many expectations were raised ahead of its publication but itsoon became clear that defence would be a central element of the Global Strategy. A number of defence priorities emerged from the exchanges between the main stakeholders: a central role for the common security and defence policy (CSDP); a clear level of ambition with tools to match; emphasis on EU-NATO cooperation; and concrete follow-up measures such as a ‘White Book’ on European defence. Seen in this light,the Global Strategy captures the urgent need to face the challenges of today’s environment and it may prove to be a major turning point in EU foreign policy and security thinking. It emphasizes the value of hard power — including via a strong partnership with NATO — along with soft power. It will not be easy for the Member States to match the level of ambition set in the Global Strategy and its success will be judged in terms of the follow-up and the measures taken to implement it. Could the first step be a White Book on European Defence?

 

European Defence Action Plan - COM (2016) 950

Document type: 
Policy document
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Commission Communication - COM (2016) 950
Abstract: 

On 30 November 2016 the Commission presented the European defence action plan (EDAP).

The plan proposes a European Defence Fund and other actions to support Member States (MS) in more efficient spending in joint defence. Announced in the 2016 Commission work programme, the EDAP follows up on the communication 'Towards a more competitive and efficient defence and security sector'  of July 2013, as well as on the conclusions of the European Council of December 2013. 

Europe for the Europeans - The Foreign and Security Policy of the Populist Radical Right

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

For the last two decades the number of political organizations on the far right, neo-populist right and neo-conservative right has been growing.

Along with the mounting electoral success for many of the parties there has also been a growing disenchantment with the political class which has led to a revolt against the current political 'establishment'. The events of September 11, 2001 and the 'War on Terror' have further aggravated tensions within the populations between those who feel they are the 'legitimate' citizens of the state and those who are considered 'outsiders'. The recent expansion of the EU's borders has also brought on fears of a surge of both legal and illegal immigration. All these factors have led to a growing number of cases of harassment and outbursts of violence aimed at asylum seekers and ethnic minorities in Europe. This book measures the effects of neo-populist groups on the current political establishment and illustrates how much political appeal neo-populist views have on making current political policy.

 

The Humanitarian Politics of European Border Policing: Frontex and Border Police in Evros

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Political Sociology, Vol 9, No. 1: 53–69
Abstract: 

This paper explores humanitarianism in the practice of Frontex-assisted Greek border police in Evros and of Frontex at their headquarters in Warsaw.

Building on the increase in humanitarian justifications for border policing practices as well as the charges of a lack of humanity, the paper analyzes the relations between humanitarian responses and border policing where humanitarianism is used for framing and giving meaning to institutional and operational practices. In offering an interpretive view of border policing undertaken by people in their working lives across sites and scales, it builds on the critical literature addressing the multifaceted nature of border control in Europe today. At the same time, it speaks to wider debates about the double-sided nature of humanitarian governance concerned with care and control. It argues that while humanitarian motivations have implications for operations in the field and help to frame “good practice” at the policy level, humanitarianism should not be seen as additional or paradoxical to wider border policing operations within forms of governance developed to address the problems of population. Conflict arises in the paradox of protection between the subject of humanitarianism and policing, the population, and the object of border control, the territorially bounded state or regional unit.

 

Advanced social engineering attacks

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Journal of Information Security and Applications, Vol. 22: 113-122
Abstract: 

Social engineering has emerged as a serious threat in virtual communities and is an effective means to attack information systems.

The services used by today's knowledge workers prepare the ground for sophisticated social engineering attacks. The growing trend towards BYOD (bring your own device) policies and the use of online communication and collaboration tools in private and business environments aggravate the problem. In globally acting companies, teams are no longer geographically co-located, but staffed just-in-time. The decrease in personal interaction combined with a plethora of tools used for communication (e-mail, IM, Skype, Dropbox, LinkedIn, Lync, etc.) create new attack vectors for social engineering attacks. Recent attacks on companies such as the New York Times and RSA have shown that targeted spear-phishing attacks are an effective, evolutionary step of social engineering attacks. Combined with zero-day-exploits, they become a dangerous weapon that is often used by advanced persistent threats. This paper provides a taxonomy of well-known social engineering attacks as well as a comprehensive overview of advanced social engineering attacks on the knowledge worker.

 

Improving the Involvement of Digital Volunteers in Disaster Management

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Conference on Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction ITDRR 2016: Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction pp 214-224
Abstract: 

Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has been seen as useful information in times of disasters.

Several authors have shown that VGI is useful for coping with preparedness and response phases of disaster management. However, because it is still a young technology, the use of VGI remains uncertain, due to its lack of strong reliability and validity. It is our assumption that to improve reliability and validity the promotion of citizen engagement (CE) is needed. CE is not new topic, but in the digital humanitarian context, it involves important factors that are not yet considered by disaster managers, such as communication processes, motivation of volunteers, different media for production of information, etc. To fill this gap, we identified a set of preliminary factors which should be considered to promote the involvement of volunteers in disaster management. These factors were derived from critical review of CE literature and from an analysis of lessons learned from an experiment on interaction with citizens carried out in context of the EU-project “DRIVER – Driving Innovation in Crisis Management for European Resilience”.

 

Critical infrastructure protection: Requirements and challenges for the 21st century

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, Vol. 8: 53-66
Abstract: 

Critical infrastructures play a vital role in supporting modern society.

The reliability, performance, continuous operation, safety, maintenance and protection of critical infrastructures are national priorities for countries around the world. This paper explores the vulnerabilities and threats facing modern critical infrastructures with special emphasis on industrial control systems, and describes a number of protection measures. The paper also discusses some of the challenging areas related to critical infrastructure protection such as governance and security management, secure network architectures, self-healing, modeling and simulation, wide-area situational awareness, forensics and learning, and trust management and privacy.

EU Cybersecurity and the Paradox of Progress

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS Policy Insights, No. 2018/06
Abstract: 

Technological revolutions bring opportunities, but sometimes even greater threats.

This ‘paradox of progress’ affects cyberspace and threatens the very principle and foundation of the open internet. The global debate on cyber-governance is currently in a stalemate on the norms for global stability of cyberspace and the fight against cybercrime, although the EU is making considerable efforts to strengthen cyberspace resilience and the critical information infrastructure. The author argues that the newly proposed Cybersecurity Act should be supported by additional measures to increase awareness, devise smarter policy and enable effective governance. Too many users and businesses are still failing to take cybersecurity and computer hygiene seriously. And there is a need to strengthen the pan-European coordination of deterrence, detection, and defence. This paper looks at the possibilities for the EU in this domain and argues that at a time of American diplomatic and political retrenchment from Europe and the world, it has an opportunity to play a leading role in global cybersecurity policy and governance.

EU Emergency Response Policies and NGOs

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Springer
Abstract: 

This book analyses trends and changes in the European Union’s (EU) humanitarian aid policy, by focusing on the performance of Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs).

NGOs have developed strong relationships with international institutions but have also maintained direct interaction with EU member states. The result is a multi-layered process in which national interests, common values, universal principles and global duties meet and interact. By combining a deepening of the theoretical debate with the use of empirical data on the funding of NGO projects by EU institutions and member states, the book significantly furthers our understanding of the complex relationship between these actors. It will appeal to students and scholars interested in EU politics, global security, and international aid, as well as practitioners in the humanitarian field. 

Pages

Go to top