Knowledgebase

Number of results: 236

Frames of War - When Is Life Grievable?

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Verso Books, New York
Abstract: 

In Frames of War, Judith Butler explores the media's portrayal of state violence, a process integral to the way in which the West wages modern war.

This portrayal has saturated our understanding of human life, and has led to the exploitation and abandonment of whole peoples, who are cast as existential threats rather than as living populations in need of protection. These people are framed as already lost, to imprisonment, unemployment and starvation, and can easily be dismissed. In the twisted logic that rationalizes their deaths, the loss of such populations is deemed necessary to protect the lives of 'the living.' This disparity, Butler argues, has profound implications for why and when we feel horror, outrage, guilt, loss and righteous indifference, both in the context of war and, increasingly, everyday life.

Populist Radical Right Parties in the Nordic Region: A New and Distinct Party Family?

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Scandinavian Political Studies, 37 (3): 215-238
Abstract: 

The Nordic countries are no longer characterized by a stable five-party system.

Not only have small Christian parties and Green parties emerged in most countries, so-called ‘populist radical right parties’ have also been increasingly successful in recent decades. This article examines to what extent the populist radical right parties in the Nordic countries represent a new party family. Based on various and original data, including archive material, interviews with key representatives, party manifestos and expert surveys, the processes of deciding party names, the development of transnational linkages and ideological transformation are analyzed. The article demonstrates that even though the Danish People's Party, the True Finns and the Sweden Democrats have different historical legacies, they have converged ideologically (i.e., socioeconomically centrist and socioculturally authoritarian), adopted similar names and are on the verge of becoming a more formalized transnational actor. The Progress Party in Norway is better seen as a hybrid between a populist radical right party and a more traditional conservative party. The findings challenge several classifications in the extensive literature on populist radical right parties. Most importantly, the True Finns should be included as a populist radical right party, whereas the Norwegian party should be treated more carefully. Furthermore, Nordic populist radical right parties are no longer – if they have ever been – so-called ‘neoliberal populists’. Finally, the findings suggest a re-freezing of the Nordic party systems in which a phase of divergence has been replaced by a phase of convergence.

The Ideology of the Extreme Right

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Manchester University Press
Abstract: 

Though the extreme right was not particularly successful in the 1999 European elections, it continues to be a major factor in the politics of Western Europe.

This book provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the extreme right in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany. On the basis of original research--using party literature--the author concludes that though individual parties might stress different issues, the extreme right party family does share a core ideology of nationalism, xenophobia, welfare chauvinism, and law and order.

Radicalism and Political Reform in the Islamic and Western Worlds

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Cambridge University Press
Abstract: 

Over the last decade, political Islam has been denounced in the Western media and in the surrounding literature as a terrorist or fascist movement that is entirely at odds with Western democratic i

deology. Kai Hafez's book overturns these arguments, contending that, despite its excesses, as a radical form of political opposition the movement plays a central role in the processes of democratization and modernization, and that these processes have direct parallels in the history and politics of the West. By analyzing the evolution of Christian democratization through the upheavals of the Reformation, colonisation, fascism, and totalitarianism, the book shows how radicalism and violence were constant accompaniments to political change, and that these components - despite assertions to the contrary - are still part of Western political culture to this day.

Islam and Political Violence

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Religions, 6 (3): 1067-1081
Abstract: 

The global threat of Al Qaeda post 9/11 and ISIL, increased Sunni-Shia conflicts, and violence in the Middle East and Pakistan dominate headlines and challenge governments in the region and globall

y. Both Muslim extremists and some Western experts and observers speak of a clash of civilizations or a culture war in Muslim-West relations. Both the discourse and violence yet again raise questions about the relationship of Islam to violence and terrorism: is Islam a particularly violent religion? Critics cite Quranic passages, doctrines like jihad and events in Muslim history as strong indicators and proof that Islam is the primary driver of Muslim extremism and terrorism. What do the Quran and Islamic law have to say about violence, jihad and warfare? What are the primary drivers of terrorism in the name of Islam today? This article will address these questions in the context of development of global jihadist movements, in particular Al Qaeda and ISIL, their roots, causes, ideology and agenda.

Jihadi Culture: The Art and Social Practices of Militant Islamists

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Cambridge University Press
Abstract: 

Al-Qaida and Islamic State continue to captivate the world with their extreme violence.

While much attention has been given to the operations and doctrines of jihadi groups, this is the first book to explore their culture. Using a wealth of primary sources, the authors examine what goes on inside these organizations and what daily life is like for the foot-soldiers. They show that Islamist militants have a rich aesthetic culture and do much more than fight and train. Life in a jihadi group is in fact filled with poetry and music, and fighters spend time on surprising things like dream interpretation and weeping. Readers will discover an entirely new perspective on radical Islamists: that despite their reputation as macho men, they value humility, artistic sensitivity, and displays of emotion. Cultural practices are essential for understanding the jihadi worldview and may shed important new light on decision-making and recruitment processes in extremist groups. This original book will interest anyone in academia, government, or the general public who is intrigued by the appeal and resilience of the jihadi movement.

The parallel decline of multiculturalism and the welfare state in the Netherlands

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Chapter 6 in: Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies, Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka (eds.), Oxford University Press (Scholarship Online)
Abstract: 

This chapter examines whether there is a causal relationship between the recent changes in Dutch multiculturalist policies and the decline of the Dutch welfare state.

During the post-war years, the Dutch built one of the most generous welfare states in Europe and adopted a strongly multiculturalist Minorities Policy, which reflected an extension of their approach to historic diversities, known as pillarization. During the 1990s, however, the Netherlands reduced the scope of its welfare state and shifted away from multiculturalism. It is argued here that the corrosive effects of MCPs did not contribute to the decline of the Dutch welfare state. On one side, restructuring the welfare state reflected economic and ideological trends common to Western democracies, and there is little evidence that issues of immigration or multiculturalism played a role in the political shift. On the other side, the shift away from the traditional approach to multiculturalism was driven by concern that the approach was contributing to the exclusion of minorities from the economic and social mainstream of Dutch society, and not by concerns about the impact of multiculturalism on the welfare state.

The growing gap between facts and discourse on immigrant integration in the Netherlands

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Global Studies in Culture & Power, 21 (6): 693-707
Abstract: 

The Netherlands’ recent history of dealing with immigrant integration provides an excellent example of the dangers of thinking in terms of fixed ‘national’ integration models.

When first confronted with large-scale immigration, the Netherlands embarked on a policy of multiculturalism. Its current approach is one of the most assimilationist in Western Europe: several in-between forms have also been tried out. This article describes the evolution of Dutch thinking and Dutch policy-making on immigrant integration over the past few decades, and it analyses why the country has switched so frequently from one model to another. The harsher approach of this moment can be explained neither by major shifts that might have occurred in public opinion, nor by the actual course of the immigrant integration process, which has been advancing steadily. The root causes of the growing gap between facts and discourse lie in popular anxiety provoked by profound changes in Dutch society.

Eurobarometer - Europeans' attitude towards Security

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Eurobarometer Special Survey 464b
Abstract: 

The aim of this report is to analyse the results of the questions asked regarding citizens’ overall awareness, experiences and perceptions of security.

The survey explores the issue of security by looking at a whole host of areas: overall perceptions of security and threats, perceptions of the actions taken by the police and other law enforcement authorities to combat those threats, and their attitudes toward national and international cooperation in dealing with the various security challenges faced by the Member States of the EU. 

Eurobarometer - Civil Protection

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Special Eurobarometer 454
Abstract: 

The aim of this survey is to explore EU citizen awareness, support, perceptions and attitudes towards the European Union’s activities in the area of civil protection.

It will examine opinions regarding the need for providing assistance in a coordinated manner as well as whether they consider the EU is doing enough to prevent or prepare for disasters. Finally, the survey will determine the preferred medium for further information about civil protection policy. 

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