Knowledgebase

Number of results: 236

CRISPR/Cas

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Document: 
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

CRISPR/Cas is a powerful new genome editing technology.

Acting as a highly specific molecular scissor, the CRISPR/Cas system facilitates reliable and permanent DNA modification in all kinds of organisms, from bacteria to humans. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) serve a huge variety of purposes, including (but not limited to) research, energy and food production, pharmaceutical and chemical production as well as waste management. In addition, CRISPR/Cas opens up new avenues in medicine.

Blockchain

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The blockchain technology is a public access database that is the basis of the so called bitcoin protocol[1].

To prevent manipulation blockchains contain of continuously growing lists of encrypted and linked (transaction) datasets and are redundantly distributed within a network. The used mechanism makes it nearly impossible to manipulate this database.

Eurobarometer - Gender-based violence

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Eurobarometer Special Survey 449
Abstract: 

This survey investigates the perceptions of EU citizens about gender-based violence.

Chapter I looks at general perceptions of domestic violence, in terms of perceived prevalence against both men and women. It also examines views of how acceptable such violence is or can be as well as personal awareness of both domestic violence and available support services. Finally the chapter looks at whether domestic violence is perceived as a “private matter”. Chapter II focuses on citizens’ views on the appropriate legal response to various forms of gender-based violence and looks at how these difference types of violence are viewed in terms of whether they are wrong and are or should be against the law. Chapter III looks at prevalence of sexual harassment more widely and where violence against women is most likely to take place. Finally it examines the extent to which respondents agree or disagree with a series of statements relating to perceptions of sexual violence against women. It also presents a series of different situations to respondents and examines whether any of these can ever justify sexual intercourse without consent. 

Eurobarometer - Data Protection

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Special Eurobarometer 431
Abstract: 

This survey is designed to support the finalisation of the data protection reform by studying the views of EU citizens about issues surrounding data protection. It first looks at the level of

control respondents feel they have over the personal data they provide online, their concerns about any perceived lack of control and about the monitoring of their activities. Secondly, the survey deals with the respondents’ attitudes to providing personal information and issues such as online profiling. They were then asked about their awareness of their rights, and whether they know about their national public authority in charge of data protection. Finally, whether they would complain to this or another agency should their data ever be lost or stolen. People’s expectations are also evaluated in terms of whether they think they should have to give express permission for their data to be gathered and used. Respondents were asked whether they trust various authorities and bodies to protect their information, and what they would do and what they would expect to happen should their data be lost or stolen. The survey then tackled the respondents’ level of knowledge when it comes to the conditions of data collection, and whether they read the privacy statements provided by online services. Finally, the level of awareness of privacy settings on social networking sites was discussed, with respondents asked how easy they find it to change the settings, or why they have not done so. A last section deals with the way in which Europeans use the Internet. 

Disaster Resilience: An Integrated Approach

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Charles C Thomas, Publisher Ltd.
Abstract: 

Events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Japanese earthquakes and tsunamis in 2011 have provided unfortunate reminders of the susceptibility of many communiti

es to devastating losses from natural hazards. These events provided graphic illustrations of how extreme hazard events adversely impact on people, affect communities and disrupt the community and societal mechanisms that serve to organize and sustain community capacities and functions. However, there is much that communities can do to mitigate their risk and manage disaster consequences. The construct that epitomizes how this is done is resilience. The contents of this volume provide valuable insights into how societal resilience can be developed and sustained. This considerably expanded new edition presents major topics of: Coexisting with Natural Hazards; Urban Resilience in Asia; Lifelines and Urban Resilience; Business Continuity in Disaster; Hazard Mitigation in Communities; Hazard Readiness and Resilience; Child Citizenship in Disaster Risk; Old Age and Resilience; Gender and Disaster Resilience; Impact of High Functionality on Resilience; Art and Resilience; Cross-Cultural Perspectives and Coping with Hazards; Religious Practices and Resilience; Living in Harmony with our Environment; Critical Incidence Response; Governance; Heat Wave Resilience; Wildfire Disaster Resilience; and Progress and Challenges to Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience. This book brings together contributions from international experts in core areas and includes chapters that provide and overarching framework within which the need for interrelationships between levels to be developed is discussed. 

The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): development of a survey instrument to assess community resilience

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 15 (1): 15-29
Abstract: 

While building community resilience to disasters is becoming an important strategy in emergency management, this is a new field of research with few available instruments for assessing community re

silience. This article describes the development of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) survey instrument. CART is a community intervention designed to enhance community resilience to disasters, in part, by engaging communities in measuring it. The survey instrument, originally based on community capacity and related literature and on key informant input, was refined through a series of four field tests. Community organizations worked with researchers in a participatory action process that provided access to samples and helped to guide the research. Exploratory factor analysis performed after each field test led to the identification of four interrelated constructs (also called domains) which represent the foundation for CART Connection and Caring, Resources, Transformative Potential, and Disaster Management. This model was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis on two community samples. The CART survey can provide data for organizations and communities interested in assessing a community's resilience to disasters. Baseline data, preferably collected pre disaster can be compared to data collected post disaster and/or post intervention.

Assessing Community Resilience: An application of the expanded CART survey instrument with affiliated volunteer responders

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
American Behavioral Scientist, 59 (2): 181-199
Abstract: 

This article describes an application of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit Assessment Survey using a sample of affiliated volunteer responders.

The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit Assessment Survey is a theory-based, evidence-informed instrument. Early applications of the survey identified four domains: Connection and Caring, Resources, Transformative Potential, and Disaster Management. The version of the instrument used in the current application added items related to Information and Communication, thus creating a fifth domain. The application confirmed the five-factor model and the instrument demonstrated good reliability. Affiliated volunteer responders served as key informants regarding community resilience because of their involvement in local disaster readiness and response. Home ownership and active membership in an affiliated volunteer responder group were associated with the total community resilience score and with multiple domain scores, suggesting the importance of community member investment and engagement for a community’s resilience. Although the study sample involved affiliated volunteer responders, it is likely that engagement in other community organizations and activities may yield similar benefits for resilience.

Revised Prevent Duty Guidance: for England and Wales

Document type: 
Policy document
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
UK Government
Abstract: 

This guidance identifies best practice for each of the main sectors and describes ways in which they can comply with the duty.

It includes sources of further advice and provides information on how compliance with the duty will be monitored. 

The Prevent Duty - Departmental advice for schools and childcare providers

Document type: 
Policy document
Publisher / Publication: 
UK Government - Department for Education
Abstract: 

From 1 July 2015 all schools, registered early years childcare providers and registered later years childcare providers are subject to a duty under section 26 of the Counter-Terrorism and

Security Act 2015, in the exercise of their functions, to have “due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism”. This duty is known as the Prevent duty. It applies to a wide range of public-facing bodies. This advice complements the statutory guidance and refers to other relevant guidance and advice. It is intended to help schools and childcare providers think about what they can do to protect children from the risk of radicalisation and suggests how they can access support to do this. It reflects actions that many schools and childcare providers will already be taking to protect children from this risk. 

On Suicide Bombing

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Columbia University Press
Abstract: 

Drawing on his extensive scholarship in the study of secular and religious traditions as well as his understanding of social, political, and anthropological theory and research, Asad questions West

ern assumptions regarding death and killing. He scrutinizes the idea of a "clash of civilizations," the claim that "Islamic jihadism" is the essence of modern terror, and the arguments put forward by liberals to justify war in our time. He critically engages with a range of explanations of suicide terrorism, exploring many writers' preoccupation with the motives of perpetrators. In conclusion, Asad examines our emotional response to suicide (including suicide terrorism) and the horror it invokes.

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