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Number of results: 159

DIRECTIVE 2011/92/EU on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography

Document type: 
Legislation
Publisher / Publication: 
Official Journal of the European Union

DIRECTIVE 2013/40/EU on attacks against information systems and replacing Council Framework Decision 2005/222/JHA

Document type: 
Legislation
Document: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Official Journal of the European Union

A European Border and Coast Guard: What’s in a name?

Document type: 
SOURCE publication
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS

How far does ‘societal security’ travel? Securitization in South African immigration policies

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 45(2), pp. 137–155
Abstract: 

Responding to political developments in Europe during the 1990s, the Copenhagen School drew on speech act theory to argue that state leaders represent certain issues, including immigration, as exis

tential threats to society. Two decades of friendly amendments and vociferous critiques have raised questions about how well the Copenhagen School’s core concept of ‘societal security’ travels outside Europe. To assess the scope of this ‘securitization’ framework more systematically, we examine South Africa, a democracy that recently liberalized its immigration policies despite ethno-nationalist and racist traditions. Specifically, we test four claims: (1) that official discourses will target certain foreigners as an existential threat to collective identity; (2) that bureaucracies will consistently institutionalize these discourses; (3) that identity-oriented groups will be crucial to any societal contestation over these discourses; and (4) that successful securitization produces regionalization. These securitization claims hold up well, even though the nature of threats to societal security shift over time. Keeping in mind that no theory is without weaknesses, we recommend wider integration of the societal security concept into comparative studies of immigration policy, especially in democracies outside Europe. 

Risk as Value: Combining Affect and Analysis in Risk Judgments

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Journal of Risk Research 9(2), pp. 141–164
Abstract: 

Studies of public perceptions of hazardous activities and technologies include a wide range of approaches.

One approach—‘‘risk-as-analysis’’—emphasizes the human capacity for analytic deliberation. A second approach—‘‘risk-as-feelings’’— emphasizes the tendency for people to rely on affective reactions. In this paper we expand and link these approaches by adopting a ‘‘risk-as-value’’ model, emphasizing that responses to risk result from a combination of analysis and affect that motivates individuals and groups to achieve a particular way of life. Derived from dual-process theories, the risk-as-value model implies that differences in perceived risk may arise from differences in the analytic evaluation of a risk, differences in the affective evaluation of a risk, or the way these evaluations are combined. We discuss the goals of dual processes in comprehensively governing the valuation of risk information in order to achieve desirable outcomes. We highlight the importance of model-based research and the need for researchers to look for converging evidence using multiple dependent measures and methods. Implications for risk communication are discussed. 

Dangerously exposed: the life and death of the resilient subject

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Resilience, 1(2), pp. 83–98
Abstract: 

What does it mean to live dangerously? This is not just a philosophical question or ethical call to reflect upon our own individual recklessness.

It is a deeply political question being asked by ideologues and policy makers who want us to abandon the dream of ever achieving security and embrace danger as a condition of possibility for life in the future. As this article demonstrates, this belief in the necessity and positivity of human exposure to danger is fundamental to the new doctrine of ‘resilience’. Resilience demands our disavowal of any belief in the possibility to secure ourselves and accept that life is a permanent process of continual adaptation to dangers said to be outside our control. The resilient subject is a subject which must permanently struggle to accommodate itself to the world, and not a subject which can conceive of changing the world, its structure and conditions of possibility. However, it is a subject which accepts the dangerousness of the world it lives in as a condition for partaking of that world and which accepts the necessity of the injunction to change itself in correspondence with threats now presupposed as endemic. This is less than acceptable. Not only is it politically catastrophic, it is fundamentally nihilistic. Identifying resilience as a nihilism that forces the subject to wilfully abandon the political, we argue for a wholesale rethinking of the question of what a politics of life is and can be.

“Maternal thinking” and the concept of “vulnerability” in security paradigms, policies, and practices

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Journal of International Political Theory 10(1) 46–69
Abstract: 

This article takes as its starting point Sara Ruddick’s discussion of “vulnerability” in her 1989 groundbreaking book Maternal Thinking: Toward a Politics of Peace.

It examines the kind of thinking about vulnerability that Ruddick describes as developed through maternal practice and uses it as a heuristic device for rethinking the conceptions of and responses to vulnerability that permeate national and international security discourses. It explores the specific forms of practice and reason that are implicated by these different stances toward vulnerability and shows that the (often unexamined) assumptions underlying these stances are profoundly consequential for both policy and practice. Specifically, it takes both nuclear weapons and the so-called Global War on Terror as particular forms of response to perceived vulnerability and scrutinizes the practices associated with each in light of the forms of rationality arising from maternal practice. It also explores the assumptions underlying the concept of “vulnerable groups” commonly employed in international policy institutions, teasing out their implications for politics, policy, and action. Overall, it argues that Ruddick’s articulation of maternal thinking provides a valuable resource for reimagining transformed and transformative security practices. 

Dialectics of Vulnerability and Resilience

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy 14(1), pp. 39-59

Helping behavior in a virtual crisis situation: effects of safety awareness and crisis communication

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Journal of Risk Research, DOI: 10.1080/13669877.2015.1071865
Abstract: 

Incident evaluations show that bystanders tend to help: they do not wait for professionals to arrive, but act as required by the situation at hand.

In the present study, we investigated how safety awareness (induced before an accident happened) and providing a course of action by emergency services affect helping behavior after witnessing a virtual accident with two victims. The main task of the participants was to arrive at a job interview in time. Safety awareness was manipulated by the specific organization they went to: either promoting safe traffic or healthy living. The results show that all participants were inclined to help. Participants who were primed towards safe traffic more often called the emergency number, but talked to the victim less often. Participants who had received specific courses of action moved the victim less often. In all, the results clearly indicate the value of effective risk communication (before an event occurs) and crisis communication (after an event has occurred), as both types of information improve the quality of actual helping behavior at the scene.

Cyber security information exchange to gain insight into the effects of cyber threats and incidents

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Elektrotech. Inftech. (2015) 132: 106. doi:10.1007/s00502-015-0289-2
Abstract: 

The last couple of years we have seen an increase in interests and initiatives in establishing threat intelligence sharing communities, and on the development of standards and platforms for automat

ed cyber security information sharing. These initiatives are focused on helping organisations to increase their resilience to new attacks and threats. In this paper we will investigate how we can leverage from cyber security information sharing infrastructures to gain early insight into the large scale effects of cyber threats and incidents. In particular we focus on those that might have a disruptive effect on society. Furthermore, in this paper we will discuss what information needs to be shared and how this can be done using the dominant threat intelligence sharing standards.

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