Knowledgebase

Number of results: 245

Routledge Handbook of Private Security Studies

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

The increasing privatization of security across the globe has been the subject of much debate and controversy, inciting fears of private warfare and even the collapse of the state.

This volume provides the first comprehensive overview of the range of issues raised by contemporary security privatization, offering both a survey of the numerous roles performed by private actors and an analysis of their implications and effects. Ranging from the mundane to the spectacular, from secretive intelligence gathering and neighbourhood surveillance to piracy control and warfare, this Handbook shows how private actors are involved in both domestic and international security provision and governance. It places this involvement in historical perspective, and demonstrates how the impact of security privatization goes well beyond the security field to influence diverse social, economic and political relationships and institutions. Finally, this volume analyses the evolving regulation of the global private security sector. Seeking to overcome the disciplinary boundaries that have plagued the study of private security, the Handbook promotes an interdisciplinary approach and contains contributions from a range of disciplines, including international relations, politics, criminology, law, sociology, geography and anthropology.

Identity and Desecuritisation: the pitfalls of conflating ontological and physical security

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Journal of International Relations & Development, 18 (1): 52-74
Abstract: 

How can the Self move from a securitised to a non-securitised relation with the Other while its very identity depends on its relation to the Other?

Within the existing critical approaches to security, this question, which encapsulates the complex interrelationship between identity and desecuritisation, has not been explored in a systematic manner. This article builds on the emerging literature on ontological security to develop a two-layered framework of security as both ontological and physical, wherein the relationship between identity and desecuritisation can be better analysed. I argue that the conflation of ontological and physical security within the existing critical approaches to security has generated an insufficient appreciation of how identity expands the possibilities for desecuritisation while imposing new limits. In particular, the framework offered in this article highlights the possibilities for achieving ontological security in the absence of securitisation and limits to desecuritisation that stem from ontological insecurity.

Is the Environment a Security Threat - Environmental Security beyond Securitization

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Affairs Review, 20 (1)
Abstract: 

Looking at the question – is environmental degradation a security threat? –, this paper argues in favor of a revised framework of security that includes environment as a key determinant.

Later, the paper explains the conceptual linkages between environmental degradation and security through several theoretical viewpoints. The paper primarily focuses on the contributions of the constructivist school of thought to explain the idea of environmental security. The paper also establishes a link among environment degradation, threat to life and vulnerability. This linkage helps to understand the relationship between environmental degradation and potential conflicts. Primary information on the prevalence and effects of ecological degradation and climate change are utilized to support the thesis. Finally, the paper concludes with the argument that environmental changes hamper individual security by affecting livelihoods and promotes transnational security crises for states and regions. Hence, environmental degradation is a significant threat to security for both individuals and nation-states. 

Small States and International Security - Europe and Beyond

Document type: 
Book
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

This book explains what ‘small’ states are and explores their current security challenges, in general terms and through specific examples.

It reflects the shift from traditional security definitions emphasizing defence and armaments, to new security concerns such as economic, societal and environmental security where institutional cooperation looms larger. These complex issues, linked with traditional power relations and new types of actors, need to be tackled with due regard to democracy and good governance. Key policy challenges for small states are examined and applied in the regional case studies.

Contemporary Security Studies (4th Edition)

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Oxford University Press
Abstract: 

Contemporary Security Studies is bringing together leading scholars in the field of Security Studies. It features an impressive breadth and depth of coverage of the different theoretical

approaches to the study of security and the ever-evolving range of issues that dominate the security agenda in the 21st Century. Throughout the text, students are encouraged to question their own preconceptions and assumptions, and to use their own judgement to critically evaluate key approaches and ideas. To help them achieve this, each chapter is punctuated with helpful learning features including 'key ideas', 'think points' and case studies, demonstrating the real world applications and implications of the theory. In addition to covering a wide range of topical security issues, from terrorism and inter-state armed conflict to cybersecurity, health, and transnational crime, the fourth edition features a new chapter on postcolonialism and expanded coverage of critical security studies. The book is supported by an Online Resource Centre designed to help students take their learning further.

Globalization and Environmental Challenges - Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century

Document type: 
Book
Publisher / Publication: 
Springer Verlag
Abstract: 

Globalization and Environmental Challenges pose new security dangers and concerns.

In this reference book on global security thinking, 92 authors from five continents and many disciplines, from science and practice, assess the global reconceptualization of security triggered by the end of the Cold War, globalization and manifold impacts of global environmental change in the early 21st century. In 10 parts, 75 chapters address the theoretical, philosophical, ethical and religious and spatial context of security; discuss the relationship between security, peace, development and environment; review the reconceptualization of security in philosophy, international law, economics and political science and for the political, military, economic, social and environmental security dimension and the adaptation of the institutional security concepts of the UN, EU and NATO; analyze the reconceptualization of regional security and alternative security futures and draw conclusions for future research and action.

Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict - Challenges for Societal Stability

Document type: 
Book
Publisher / Publication: 
Springer Verlag
Abstract: 

Severe droughts, damaging floods and mass migration: Climate change is becoming a focal point for security and conflict research and a challenge for the world’s governance structures.

But how severe are the security risks and conflict potentials of climate change? Could global warming trigger a sequence of events leading to economic decline, social unrest and political instability? What are the causal relationships between resource scarcity and violent conflict? This book brings together international experts to explore these questions using in-depth case studies from around the world. Furthermore, the authors discuss strategies, institutions and cooperative approaches to stabilize the climate-society interaction.

Joint Framework on countering hybrid threats - a European Union response - JOIN (2016) 18

Document type: 
Policy document
Publisher / Publication: 
European Commission / European External Action Service (EEAS)
Abstract: 

This Joint Communication aims to facilitate a holistic approach that will enable the EU, in coordination with Member States, to specifically counter threats of a hybrid nature by creating synergies

between all relevant instruments and fostering close cooperation between all relevant actors. The actions build on existing strategies and sectoral policies that contribute to achieving greater security. In particular, the European Agenda on Security, the European Union Global Strategy for foreign and security policy and European Defence Action Plan, the EU Cybersecurity Strategy, the Energy Security Strategy, the European Union Maritime Security Strategy are tools that may also contribute to countering hybrid threats. 

Eurobarometer - Gender-based violence

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Eurobarometer Special Survey 449
Abstract: 

This survey investigates the perceptions of EU citizens about gender-based violence.

Chapter I looks at general perceptions of domestic violence, in terms of perceived prevalence against both men and women. It also examines views of how acceptable such violence is or can be as well as personal awareness of both domestic violence and available support services. Finally the chapter looks at whether domestic violence is perceived as a “private matter”. Chapter II focuses on citizens’ views on the appropriate legal response to various forms of gender-based violence and looks at how these difference types of violence are viewed in terms of whether they are wrong and are or should be against the law. Chapter III looks at prevalence of sexual harassment more widely and where violence against women is most likely to take place. Finally it examines the extent to which respondents agree or disagree with a series of statements relating to perceptions of sexual violence against women. It also presents a series of different situations to respondents and examines whether any of these can ever justify sexual intercourse without consent. 

Eurobarometer - Data Protection

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Special Eurobarometer 431
Abstract: 

This survey is designed to support the finalisation of the data protection reform by studying the views of EU citizens about issues surrounding data protection. It first looks at the level of

control respondents feel they have over the personal data they provide online, their concerns about any perceived lack of control and about the monitoring of their activities. Secondly, the survey deals with the respondents’ attitudes to providing personal information and issues such as online profiling. They were then asked about their awareness of their rights, and whether they know about their national public authority in charge of data protection. Finally, whether they would complain to this or another agency should their data ever be lost or stolen. People’s expectations are also evaluated in terms of whether they think they should have to give express permission for their data to be gathered and used. Respondents were asked whether they trust various authorities and bodies to protect their information, and what they would do and what they would expect to happen should their data be lost or stolen. The survey then tackled the respondents’ level of knowledge when it comes to the conditions of data collection, and whether they read the privacy statements provided by online services. Finally, the level of awareness of privacy settings on social networking sites was discussed, with respondents asked how easy they find it to change the settings, or why they have not done so. A last section deals with the way in which Europeans use the Internet. 

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