Knowledgebase

Number of results: 245

Reframing conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence: Bringing gender analysis back in

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 46 (6): 495–512
Abstract: 

Over the past decade, significant global attention has been paid to the issue of ‘widespread and systematic’ sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV).

To contribute to the prevention of SGBV, researchers have examined the relationship between the presence of armed conflict and the causes of SGBV. Much of this causal literature has focused on the individual and group perpetrator dynamics that fuel SGBV. However, we argue that research needs to lay bare the roots of SGBV in normalized and systemic gender discrimination. This article brings back structural gender inequality as a causal explanation for SGBV. In order to better understand and prevent SGBV, we propose a critical knowledge base that identifies causal patterns of gendered violence by building on existing indicators of gender discrimination.

Exercising emergencies: Resilience, affect and acting out security

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 47 (2): 99–116
Abstract: 

The idea of the complex emergency has given rise to the notion of resilience as a form of acting out security.

While security policies largely embrace the concept of resilience, critical scholarship points to the ‘responsibilization’ of the threatened subject, who is ‘programmed’ to act out security in a fashion that internalizes neoliberal values. This behaviour is trained through disciplinary practices, such as exercises, that seek to conduct the conduct of disaster populations. However, is the resilient subject only ever an instance of programmes and disciplinary power? This article takes a look at how self-organization comes about and how this process can be conceptualized through affect. It uses the setting of a cyber-security exercise to describe the dynamic interplay between affect and re/action. Building on Spinoza’s understanding of affect as the onset for action, the article discusses what affect theory contributes to resilience theory. It concludes that, as a form of acting out security, resilience incorporates both ‘programmed’ and ‘self-determined’ actions. Both forms of acting, however, imply that the resilient subject has no choice but to act out security. Given this fundamental restraint, powerlessness as the incapacity to act appears as one of the few instances that escape the governmental logic of resilience.

Smartening border security in the European Union: An associational inquiry

Document type: 
Scientific publication
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Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 47 (4): 292–309
Abstract: 

This contribution asks how the reliance on mass dataveillance of travellers is sustained as a central policy option in the governance of EU border security.

It examines this question by analysing a recent initiative of the European Commission proposing the establishment of EU ‘smart borders’. The analysis draws from a set of thinking tools developed by the sociology of association in the field of science and technology studies. The contribution argues that in order to grasp policy outcomes such as smart borders, security studies would benefit from adopting a compositional outlook on agency, where action is seen as the effect of associated entities. Looking at the smartening of EU borders, the article finds that this process is held together by multiple translations and enrolments through which the technical side of dataveillance – platforms, automated gates, matching systems, and so forth – has become associated with the processes of policymaking on border security and sustains the furtherance of mass dataveillance.

Investing in disaster management capabilities versus pre-positioning inventory: A new approach to disaster preparedness

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Journal of Production Economics, 157: 261-272
Abstract: 

Disaster preparedness has been recognized as a central element in reducing the impact of disasters worldwide.

The usual methods of preparedness, such as pre-positioning relief inventory in countries prone to disasters, are problematic because they require high investment in various locations, due to the uncertainty about the timing and location of the next disaster. Investing in disaster management capabilities, such as training staff, pre-negotiating customs agreements with countries prone to disasters, or harmonizing import procedures with local customs clearance procedures, has been recognized as a way to overcome this constraint. By means of system dynamics modeling, we model the delivery process of ready-to-use therapeutic food items during the immediate response phase of a disaster, and we analyze the performance of different preparedness scenarios. We find that pre-positioning inventory produces positive results for the beneficiaries, but at extremely high costs. Investing in disaster management capabilities is an interesting alternative, as it allows lead time reductions of up to 67% (18 days) compared to a scenario without preparedness, at significantly lower costs than pre-positioning inventory. We find that the best performance can be achieved when combining both preparedness strategies, allocating part of the available funding to disaster management capabilities and part to pre-positioning inventory. We analyze 2828 such combined scenarios to identify the best mix of preparedness strategies for different levels of available funding. On the basis of our findings, we provide recommendations for relief organizations on how to allocate their preparedness budget.

Cross-border crime patterns unveiled by exchange of DNA profiles in the European Union

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 29 (4): 640-660
Abstract: 

The aim of this study was to make a head start with unveiling transnational spatial patterns in offending.

To that end, data are used from DNA profile exchange between The Netherlands and 18 other EU member states that have implemented EU legislation on forensic cooperation. Information was collected on all DNA stains entered into the database, including the region in The Netherlands where the stain was secured, the type of crime and how many matching DNA profiles had been identified in each of the other 18 countries. The results suggest that currently the profiles of offenders who are active in other Prüm countries make up for about 4 per cent of all DNA stain profiles in the Dutch DNA database. The highest share of cross-border matches is found in the southeastern part of The Netherlands, where The Netherlands borders one of the most densely populated regions of Germany.

Security versus Justice? Police and Judicial Cooperation in the European Union

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

One of the most dynamic areas of EU law since the great changes brought to the EU constitutional order by the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999 has been cooperation in the fields of policing and criminal ju

stice. Both fields have already been the subject of substantial legislative effort in the EU and an increasing amount of judicial activity in the European Court of Justice. In 2007 - after the Constitutional Treaty of 2004 failed - the new Reform Treaty planned very substantive changes to these policies. Bringing together a wide-ranging set of topics and contributors, this book enables readers to understand these changes by examining three key questions: how did we get to the Reform Treaty; what have been - and still are - the key struggles in competence; and how do the changes fit into the transformation of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the EU?

Transnational Organized Crime and European Union: Aspects and Problems

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Chapter in: Human Rights in European Criminal Law, Stefano Ruggeri (ed.), Springer, pp 201-214
Abstract: 

The fight against criminal organizations and their ability to carry out illegal activities beyond the national borders has represented a “bridge head” in the European path towards the harmonization

of criminal laws in the member states. After considering the role played by the harmonization of criminal law in the European Union treaties, the study underlines how the difficulty in defining the concept of transnational organized crime could result in an excessive European intervention. In order to avoid such a risk, it is useful to refer to other relevant international sources, like the 2000 Palermo UN Convention, and also to recent European documents on the matter (in particular, a Resolution by the European Parliament of the 25th October 2011). The final part of the paper is dedicated to the necessity to reconsider the traditional guarantees in the new European dimension, especially in the light of the European Court of Human Rights and the European Charter of Fundamental Rights and their counterweight activity to prevent an unbalanced European intervention against organized crime.

How Civil Wars Help Explain Organized Crime—and How They Do Not

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Journal of Conflict Resolution, 59 (8): 1517–1540
Abstract: 

Large-scale organized crime occupies a gray zone between ordinary crime and political violence.

The unprecedented scale of drug-related crime in Mexico has led to its description as an insurgency or even a civil war, a conceptual move that draws on recent studies that have associated civil war with large-scale criminality. By questioning both the “crime as civil war” and “civil war as crime” models, I argue that instead of folding the two phenomena, we should draw primarily from the micro-dynamics of civil war research program to identify areas of potentially productive cross-fertilization. I point to four such areas, namely, onset and termination, organization, combat and violence, and governance and territory. I conclude by sketching a theoretical and empirical agenda for the study of large-scale organized crime.

UN Human Security Handbook

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security
Abstract: 

Prepared as a guide for practitioners and policymakers who plan to integrate the human security approach into their work, this handbook provides an overview of the principles that embody the approa

ch and its added value. It introduces a step-by-step analytical process for the design and implementation of human security initiatives, and provides guidance for assessing the added value of the approach.  A detailed case study from the Turkana region of Kenya demonstrates the application of human security tools to analyse a complex situation and develop an integrated multisectoral approach. This is followed with additional examples of programmes supported under the United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security (UNTFHS).

The Liberal Way of War - Killing to Make Life Live

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

The liberal way of war and the liberal way of rule are correlated; this book traces that correlation to liberalism's original commitment to 'making life live'.

Committed to making life live, liberalism is committed to waging war on behalf of life, specifically to promote the biopolitical life of species being; what the book calls 'the biohuman'. Tracking the advent of the age of life-as-information - complex, adaptive and emergent - while contrasting biopolitics with geopolitics, the book details how and why the liberal way of rule wages war on the human in the cause of instituting the biohuman. Contingent and emergent, the biohuman is however continuously also becoming-dangerous to itself. It therefore requires constant surveillance to anticipate the threats it presents to its own flourishing. The book explains how, in making life live, liberal rule finds its expression, today, in making the biohuman live the emergency of its emergence. Thus does liberal peace become the continuation of war by other means. Just as the information and molecular revolutions have combined to transform liberal military-strategic thinking so also has it contributed to the discourse of global danger through which global liberal governance currently legitimates the liberal way of war.

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