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Number of results: 159

European Union Research on Human Rights, Conflicts and Security in the 6th Framework Programme and the first period of 7th Framework Programme

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
European Commission
Abstract: 

Research on factors that foster the protection and enjoyment of human rights, or lead to human rights' violation, is an important knowledge base for policies in this field.

Only through the production of the 'best available knowledge' concerning which human rights are threatened or violated, why, by who, in which context, to what degree and – conversely- which rules, incentives, strategies, actors can prevent such violations, can effective policies be designed and implemented. The Research Framework Programme (FP) includes a programme on social sciences and humanities that has been addressing certain political and social rights in the EU context, certain minority rights and other human rights in the relation to security and violent conflicts, and –while rather marginally so far- specific human rights issues in the context of globalisation. Such research includes the analysis of legal norms, social behaviour and perceptions, political regimes, economic structures, and/or culture. This preliminary 'stock-taking' contribution primarily focuses on human rights research in relation to conflicts and security as part of a broader research agenda dealing with human rights also from other perspectives. 

Security Research in support of Societal resilience and Trust - What are the gaps today and how to address them?

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
Workshop „Societal Security“ in R&D, Brussels, 1 July 2010
Abstract: 

Expert Session on “Security research in support of Societal resilience and Trust”.

The aim of this session is to identify and discuss gaps in security research today, especially in support of societal resilience and trust, to discuss and conclude how these gaps can be addressed and to take into account first results and lessons learned from ongoing/finished FP7 Security research projects. 

More Presentations, Reports and Discussion Papers of the Workshop „Societal Security“ in R&D are available under 'Related Documents' below. 

Macrosecuritisation and security constellations: reconsidering scale in securitisation theory

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Review of International Studies, 35 (2): 253-276
Abstract: 

The Copenhagen school's theory of securitisation has mainly focused on the middle level of world politics in which collective political units, often but not always states, construct relationships o

f amity or enmity with each other. Its argument has been that this middle level would be the most active both because of the facility with which collective political units can construct each other as threats, and the difficulty of finding audiences for the kinds of securitisations and referent objects that are available at the individual and system levels. This article focuses on the gap between the middle and system levels, and asks whether there is not more of substance there than the existing Copenhagen school analyses suggests. It revisits the under-discussed concept of security constellations in Copenhagen school theory, and adds to it the idea of macrosecuritisations as ways of getting an analytical grip on what happens above the middle level. It then suggests how applying these concepts adds not just a missing sense of scale, but also a useful insight into underlying political logics, to how one understands the patterns of securitisation historical, and contemporary.

Macrosecuritisation and security constellations: reconsidering scale in securitisation theory

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Review of International Studies, 35 (2): 253-276
Abstract: 

The Copenhagen school's theory of securitisation has mainly focused on the middle level of world politics in which collective political units, often but not always states, construct relationships o

f amity or enmity with each other. Its argument has been that this middle level would be the most active both because of the facility with which collective political units can construct each other as threats, and the difficulty of finding audiences for the kinds of securitisations and referent objects that are available at the individual and system levels. This article focuses on the gap between the middle and system levels, and asks whether there is not more of substance there than the existing Copenhagen school analyses suggests. It revisits the under-discussed concept of security constellations in Copenhagen school theory, and adds to it the idea of macrosecuritisations as ways of getting an analytical grip on what happens above the middle level. It then suggests how applying these concepts adds not just a missing sense of scale, but also a useful insight into underlying political logics, to how one understands the patterns of securitisation historical, and contemporary.

Slippery? contradictory? sociologically untenable? The Copenhagen school replies

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Review of International Studies, 23 (2): 241-250
Abstract: 

In the January 1996 issue of the Review, Bill McSweeney argues that our 1993 book, Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe (IMNSAE), ‘subverts’ the analysis of Buza

n’s People, States and Fear (PSF) ‘without enhancing our understanding of the problem of security’ (p. 93).Bill McSweeney, ‘Identity and Security: Buzan and the Copenhagen School’, Review of International Studies, 22 (1996), pp. 81–93; O. Wæver, B. Buzan, Morten Kelstrup and Pierre Lemaitre with David Carlton et al., Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe (London, 1993). Of the many charges that McSweeney brings to bear we will address three. First is that societal security is merely a trendy response to current concerns about nationalism rather than a more theoretically considered move. Second — and this seems to be the core of his complaint — is that the view we take of ‘identities’ is far too objectivist and not (de)constructivist enough, and that our approach makes it impossible to consider the process of identity formation as part of the politics of security. Third, he says that Buzan’s association with IMNSAE contradicts strong positions he developed in PSF and that his analysis has therefore become incoherent.

Terror, Insecurity and Liberty: Illiberal Practices of Liberal Regimes after 9/11

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Although recent debate surrounding civil rights and liberties in post-9/11 Europe has focused on the forms, provisions and legal consequences of security-led policies, this volume takes an inter-di

sciplinary approach to explore how these policies have come to generate illiberal practices. The book argues that policies implemented in the name of protection and national security have had a strong effect on civil liberties, human rights and social cohesion - in particular, but not only, since 9/11. The book undertakes detailed sociological enquiries concerning security agencies, and analyses public discourses on the definition of the terrorist threat. In doing so, it aims to show that the current reframing of civil rights and liberties is in part a result of the very functioning of both the political and the security fields, in that it is embedded in a broad array of domestic and transnational political, administrative and bureaucratic stakes.

Intelligence tradecraft and the pre-crime approach to EU internal security governance

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Paper to the UACES 43rd Annual Conference, Leeds, 2-4 September 2013
Abstract: 

EU internal security policy has been in recent years progressively focused on prevention of threats and risks.

The 2010 Internal Security Strategy for the EU highlighted the need for ‘prevention and anticipation’ conceived as a proactive intelligence-led approach to EU internal security. A pre-crime framework has been widely applied in fields like security studies, police science, criminology, ethics, political sociology and political geography, owing to its inherent explanatory power. The core element of pre-crime approach is the selection and identification of the most probable among abstract risks and dispersed threats, and the profiling, or sorting out, of particular social groups or individuals posing presumably imminent threats. This paper aims at inserting the concept of intelligence tradecraft into the pre-crime analytical framework and verify the usefulness of such an approach to the study of EU internal security governance. The paper will focus on ‘intelligence process’ and ‘intelligence product’, i.e. how the stakeholders of EU internal security policy construct, modify and develop ‘products’ allowing for a better risk management and threat assessment in the context of precautionary and anticipatory attitudes towards EU security governance. 

Anticipating uncertainty, reviving risk? On the stress testing of finance in crisis

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Economy and Society, 42 (1): 51-73
Abstract: 

Widely regarded as a watershed moment in the governance of the present global financial crisis, the US Treasury's Supervisory Capital Assessment Program (SCAP) of spring 2009 undertook to ‘stress t

est’ the solvency of the largest American banks by projecting their capital adequacy going forward. The SCAP is shown to have been an important intervention that restored market confidence in US banks because it rigorously embraced and acted through a subtle but significant change in the repertoires of risk management, a very public turn to anticipatory techniques designed to ensure preparedness for low-probability, high-impact events. And, as the subsequent failures of stress-testing exercises to inspire confidence in European banking are also shown to demonstrate, the performative power of these anticipatory techniques itself turns on their seemingly precise methodological application and animation by a positive affective charge.

The Complexity of Global Security Governance: An Analytical Overview

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Global Society, 22 (4):423-443
Abstract: 

By suggesting predictable and controllable patterns of development, the literature on global governance seems to simplify the world for decision-making tractability.

In this respect, security narratives often remain analytically frozen, while the dynamics of global life are not. Relying on complexity thinking, this article both comments on the construction and potential reconstruction of the concept of security as it relates to the question of global governance and engages with the cognitive multiplicity of the notion of global security governance. Such an exploration suggests the need for the complexification of the discourses and practices of security governance through the adaptive contingency of “security as resilience”, which rejects the detachment between human and natural systems and the ability of the former to control the latter. The argument is that the logic of “security as resilience” is more appropriate than the conventional logic of “security as control”. In policy terms, therefore, the complexity of global security governance intimates an ability to cope with vulnerabilities, defy adversity and construct a new proficiency in response to the uncertainty, cognitive challenges, complex unbounded risks and the need for continuing adaptation prompted by the alterations in global life.

The molecular practices of security. Thinking security bottom-up

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Paper presented at the 8th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, Warsaw, 18.- 21. September 2013
Abstract: 

The paper aims to broaden the theoretical framework of securitization theory.

In an effort to draw stronger attention to political practices and strategies which define what must be viewed as a security issue, the paper introduces a post-structural approach to hegemony theory. While many critical security scholars are aware of Laclau and Mouffe’s theory of hegemony, for the most part the potentials of their theoretical tools have not been fully taken into account. The paper introduces such concepts as layered hegemony, discursive strategies, and everyday practices and suggests that such a framework can provide fruitful ground for the analysis of processes of securitization and de-securitization by broadening the concept of discourse, permitting closer examination of strategic processes, and allowing for reflection on hegemonic struggle. While the securitizing move is scrutinized, it is argued that the very form of securitization remains stable. In this respect, the paper takes a serious look at the contradictory and conflict-ridden ground of societal processes. 

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