Knowledgebase

Number of results: 23

Predictive Policing

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

Predictive Policing (PM) refers to the usage of mathematical, predictive and analytical techniques in law enforcement to identify potential criminal activity.

Algorithms are used to forecast where crimes are likely to occur and who might commit them, and make recommendations for allocating police resources. In principal there are two different types of predictive models, which tie crimes to people or places. First the offender-based model, which creates risk profiles for individuals in the criminal justice system and second the geospatial model, which generates risk profiles for locations.

Internet of Things Security

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The Internet of things (IoT) equips physical objects with computer technology and sensors, and hence enables them to build networks among themselves.

Threats can arise by the misuse of integrated sensors (e.g. cameras or microphones), which monitor and gather all types of data on machines and human social life. The malware "Stuxnet" has shown that cyber attacks on such networked devices can have serious physical impact. Hence security issues, such as privacy, authorization, verification, access control, system configuration, information storage, and management, are the main challenges in an IoT environment.

CRISPR/Cas

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Document: 
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

CRISPR/Cas is a powerful new genome editing technology.

Acting as a highly specific molecular scissor, the CRISPR/Cas system facilitates reliable and permanent DNA modification in all kinds of organisms, from bacteria to humans. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) serve a huge variety of purposes, including (but not limited to) research, energy and food production, pharmaceutical and chemical production as well as waste management. In addition, CRISPR/Cas opens up new avenues in medicine.

Blockchain

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The blockchain technology is a public access database that is the basis of the so called bitcoin protocol[1].

To prevent manipulation blockchains contain of continuously growing lists of encrypted and linked (transaction) datasets and are redundantly distributed within a network. The used mechanism makes it nearly impossible to manipulate this database.

Serious Games

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

1 page fact sheet on the technology trends of Serious Gaming

“Serious Games” are a special type of games which beside mere entertainment are designed to share and teach specific knowledge or train specific skills; an early example are flight simulators. Sometimes the main purpose of such games is also to foster a discussion on a complex subject to gain new insights.

Emergency Management Information Systems

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

1 page fact sheet on the technology trends of Emergency Management Information Systems (EMIS)

Emergency management information systems (EMIS) are complex IT tools to support decision making during emergency situations by enhancing the situational awareness of disaster management teams. It supports the management of infrastructures, as well as all affected parties (such as first responders and affected civilians) by real-time, collaborative group decision making. EMIS are also used for risk mitigation and recovery actions.

Non-lethal electromagnetic weapons for crowd control

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

1 page sheet on the technology trends of non-lethal electromagnetic weapons for crowd control

Electromagnetic weapons for use against humans have been developed in the USA. They use millimeter-waves of 95 GHz that penetrate only the upper layer of the human skin where they cause a burning sensation. Goal of these weapons is to repel target subjects without inducing burn injuries.

Earthquake Prediction

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

1 page fact sheet on the technology trends of Earthquake Prediction

A distinction must be made between the prediction of an earthquake and earthquake early warning systems (EEW). EEW  systems use seismic monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves, generated by an earthquake, are expected to  arrive at their location. Monitoring technologies recognize P-waves which are not destructive. After some seconds to minutes (depending on  their intensity and the distance to the epicenter) these are followed by damaging S-waves. During the period between P- and S-waves,  people and technical systems can be warned to protect life and property from destructive shaking (warning time: about 1 second for every 5  miles). On the current state of scientific knowledge reliable earthquake predictions are not possible.

Swarm Robotics

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

1 page fact sheet on the technology trends of Swarm Robotics

Similar to swarms of certain animals, which exhibit a collective behaviour when aggregated together, groups of robots can interact by following simple rules implemented in each individual system instead of carrying out instructions of a central planning unit. Such robot swarms are not necessarily dependent on communication between the swarm members and do not need any command structure, in contrast to cooperative multi-robot systems. However, in common language often the term “swarm” is used with respect to robotics neglecting this differentiation, but referring to arbitrary groups of robots, irrespective of the type of their interaction.

Post-Quantum Cryptography

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

1 page fact sheet on the technology trends of Post-Quantum Cryptography

All widely used public-key cryptosystems such as RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman) and ECC (elliptic curve cryptography) could be broken by quantum computers. Post-quantum cryptography refers to (mostly public-key) cryptographic schemes that run on conventional (classical) computers and are not breakable using classical or quantum computers.

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