Knowledgebase

Number of results: 31

The European Entry Exit System (EES)

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The idea of developing a European Entry and Exit System dates back to February 2013 with a first proposal published by the European Commission on a “Smart Borders Package” to better manage increase

d traveller flows and efficiently respond to security concerns. It was composed of 1) an Entry-Exit System (EES) to replace the passport stamping and have a record of overstays, 2) a Registered Traveller Programme (RTP) for frequent travellers to benefit from a pre-screening procedure and be able to use Automated Border Control (ABC) gates like EU citizens and 3) amendments to the Schengen Borders Code to integrate the above-mentioned changes

E-Handbook on Societal Security Crises and Emergency Response in Europe

Document type: 
SOURCE publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Insitute for European Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The e-handbook is an innovative educational tool for first responders managing crises in the area of societal security.

It features six multi-media case-studies coming from different parts of Europe, namely: Austria, Sweden, Belgium, and Spain. The case-studies explore and re-construct strategies and actions of first response professionals involved in management of socio-political emergencies and natural disasters. In addition to texts, the interactive content includes educational assignments and video interviews, in which professionals, who took on key roles in the crisis management and emergency response, share their experiences.

The Humanitarian Politics of European Border Policing: Frontex and Border Police in Evros

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Political Sociology, Vol 9, No. 1: 53–69
Abstract: 

This paper explores humanitarianism in the practice of Frontex-assisted Greek border police in Evros and of Frontex at their headquarters in Warsaw.

Building on the increase in humanitarian justifications for border policing practices as well as the charges of a lack of humanity, the paper analyzes the relations between humanitarian responses and border policing where humanitarianism is used for framing and giving meaning to institutional and operational practices. In offering an interpretive view of border policing undertaken by people in their working lives across sites and scales, it builds on the critical literature addressing the multifaceted nature of border control in Europe today. At the same time, it speaks to wider debates about the double-sided nature of humanitarian governance concerned with care and control. It argues that while humanitarian motivations have implications for operations in the field and help to frame “good practice” at the policy level, humanitarianism should not be seen as additional or paradoxical to wider border policing operations within forms of governance developed to address the problems of population. Conflict arises in the paradox of protection between the subject of humanitarianism and policing, the population, and the object of border control, the territorially bounded state or regional unit.

 

Security Union - A Europe that protects

Document type: 
Policy document
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Commission
Abstract: 

In this Factsheet, the European Commission outlines the state of play regarding legislative initiatives aimed at the completion of the Security Union

Human Security and Non-Citizens - Law, Policy and International Affairs

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Cambridge University Press
Abstract: 

The past decades have seen enormous changes in our perceptions of 'security', the causes of insecurity and the measures adopted to address them.

Threats of terrorism and the impacts of globalisation and mass migration have shaped our identities, politics and world views. This volume of essays analyses these shifts in thinking and, in particular, critically engages with the concept of 'human security' from legal, international relations and human rights perspectives. Contributors consider the special circumstances of non-citizens, such as refugees, migrants, and displaced and stateless persons, and assess whether, conceptually and practically, 'human security' helps to address the multiple challenges they face.

Smart and secure borders through automated border control systems in the EU? The views of political stakeholders in the Member States

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Security, 26 (2): 207-225
Abstract: 

The European Commission launched the “Smart Borders” policy process in 2011 to enhance border security in the European Union (EU) using technologisation and harmonisation.

This includes the use of automated border control (ABC) systems. The Member States crucially shape the process, weighing security technologies and costs, privacy and rights, and further institutional choices. We examine the views of political stakeholders in four Member States by conducting a systematic empirical and comparative study unprecedented in the existing, political-theory-inspired research. In our Q methodological experiments, political stakeholders in Finland, Romania, Spain and the UK rank-ordered a sample of statements on Smart Borders, ABC and harmonisation. The factor analysis of the results yielded three main views: the first criticising ABC as a security technology, the second welcoming the security gains of automation and the third opposing harmonised border control. While impeding harmonisation, the results offer a consensus facilitating common policy.

Knowledge of practice: A multi-sited event ethnography of border security fairs in Europe and North America

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 48 (3): 187–205
Abstract: 

This article takes the reader inside four border security fairs in Europe and North America to examine the knowledge practices of border security professionals.

Building on the border security as practice research agenda, the analysis focuses on the production, circulation, and consumption of scarce forms of knowledge. To explore situated knowledge of border security practices, I develop an approach to multi-sited event ethnography to observe and interpret knowledge that may be hard to access at the security fairs. The analysis focuses on mechanisms for disseminating and distributing scarce forms of knowledge, technological materializations of situated knowledge, expressions of transversal knowledge of security problems, how masculinities structure knowledge in gendered ways, and how unease is expressed through imagined futures in order to anticipate emergent solutions to proposed security problems. The article concludes by reflecting on the contradictions at play at fairs and how to address such contradictions through alternative knowledges and practices.

Tracing and explaining securitization: Social mechanisms, process tracing and the securitization of irregular migration

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 48 (6): 505-523
Abstract: 

This article offers a process-mechanism explanation of securitization.

To make the case for a process-mechanism account more concrete, I use interpretivist process tracing to explain the crisis episode of the Sun Sea, a Thai cargo ship carrying Sri Lankan asylum-seekers, and the securitization of irregular migration in Canada. Drawing on interviews and grey literature, the article shows how securitization was possible and under what conditions, and argues that ideational dispositions of security organizations induced state officials toward a security interpretation of the the Sun Sea. The article aims to demonstrate that process-mechanism explanations represent a compelling methodological alternative with which to trace and explain securitization. The article sees itself as part of a broader refinement of a sociological variant of securitization theory. It seeks to examine and enhance the contribution that this ‘post-Copenhagen’ approach – its core assumptions and theoretical framework – makes to the analysis of securitization.

Ethnic Violence, Local Security and Return Migration: Enclave communities in Kosovo

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Migration, 55 (5): 122-135
Abstract: 

Forced migration has become commonplace in the international political landscape. In 2015, 60 million people were displaced by violence, more than ever before recorded (UNHCR, 2015).

While we know that violence leads to displacement, we know little about return migration after conflict – who comes back and where they settle. This article seeks to engage and supplement the literature on return migration after conflict, advocating for a broader understanding of the security choices made by displaced people. Emphasized here is the importance of a local understanding of safety and the role played by enclave communities in providing a secure context in which people can enjoy the society of their co-ethnics.

EU border security and migration into the European Union: FRONTEX and securitisation through practices

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Security, 19 (2): 231-254
Abstract: 

This article examines the contribution of the activities of FRONTEX, the Agency in charge of managing operational cooperation at the external borders of the European Union (EU), to the securitisati

on of asylum and migration in the EU. It does so by applying a sociological approach to the study of securitisation processes, which, it argues, is particularly well-suited to the study of securitisation processes in the EU. Such an approach privileges the study of securitising practices over securitising ‘speech acts’ in securitisation processes. After identifying two main types of securitising practices in general, the article systematically examines the activities of FRONTEX and the extent to which they can be seen as securitising practices on the basis of these two (non-mutually exclusive) criteria. The article shows that all the main activities of FRONTEX can be considered to be securitising practices. The article therefore concludes that the activities of FRONTEX contribute to a significant extent to the ongoing securitisation of asylum and migration in the EU. It also highlights that this does not automatically make FRONTEX a significant securitising actor in its own right and that more research is needed on the relations between FRONTEX and the EU institutions, especially in the light of the current negotiations aiming to amend the founding Regulation of FRONTEX.

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