Knowledgebase

Number of results: 51

SOURCE Legal Card – Tackling disinformation and ensuring free and fair elections in Europe

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

In March 2015, the European Council called on the HRVP to work together with Member States and EU institutions to “challenge Russia’s ongoing disinformation campaigns”.

This led to the establishment of the East StratCom Task Force in the European External Action Service (EEAS)

In March 2018, a whistleblower from Cambridge Analytica revealed how the data analytics firm harvested personal information from mullions of Facebook profiles without permission. Using this personal information, Cambridge Analytica had built a system in order to profile individual voters, which was then used during the 2016 US Presidential elections and the UK Brexit Referendum in order to target voters with personalised advertisements (micro-targeting).

Following the revelations in the “Facebook/Cambridge Analytica” scandal, the European Commission issued in April 2018 its Communication on “Tackling online disinformation: a European Approach” (COM(2018) 236 final). The 2018 Communication followed a public consultation held by the Commission between November 2017 and February 2018 (on the prevalence, risks and strategies towards tackling online fake news), a Flash Eurobarometer on Fake News and Online Disinformation, structured dialogue with relevant stakeholders, as well as the report of the High Level Group on fake news and online disinformation.

In his State of the Union address in 2018, President Juncker of the European Commission presented a set of measures by the Commission in order to ensure free and fair European elections. The European Commission further submitted a Communication on securing free and fair European elections to the Leaders’ meeting in Salzburg in September 2018.
In December 2018, the Commission together with the HRVP presented an Action Plan against Disinformation in the lead-up to the 2019 European Parliament elections.
 

The European Entry Exit System (EES)

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The idea of developing a European Entry and Exit System dates back to February 2013 with a first proposal published by the European Commission on a “Smart Borders Package” to better manage increase

d traveller flows and efficiently respond to security concerns. It was composed of 1) an Entry-Exit System (EES) to replace the passport stamping and have a record of overstays, 2) a Registered Traveller Programme (RTP) for frequent travellers to benefit from a pre-screening procedure and be able to use Automated Border Control (ABC) gates like EU citizens and 3) amendments to the Schengen Borders Code to integrate the above-mentioned changes

The Humanitarian Politics of European Border Policing: Frontex and Border Police in Evros

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Political Sociology, Vol 9, No. 1: 53–69
Abstract: 

This paper explores humanitarianism in the practice of Frontex-assisted Greek border police in Evros and of Frontex at their headquarters in Warsaw.

Building on the increase in humanitarian justifications for border policing practices as well as the charges of a lack of humanity, the paper analyzes the relations between humanitarian responses and border policing where humanitarianism is used for framing and giving meaning to institutional and operational practices. In offering an interpretive view of border policing undertaken by people in their working lives across sites and scales, it builds on the critical literature addressing the multifaceted nature of border control in Europe today. At the same time, it speaks to wider debates about the double-sided nature of humanitarian governance concerned with care and control. It argues that while humanitarian motivations have implications for operations in the field and help to frame “good practice” at the policy level, humanitarianism should not be seen as additional or paradoxical to wider border policing operations within forms of governance developed to address the problems of population. Conflict arises in the paradox of protection between the subject of humanitarianism and policing, the population, and the object of border control, the territorially bounded state or regional unit.

 

Predictive Policing of Cybercrime

Document type: 
Interview/sound/video
Video: 
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
SOURCE Network
Abstract: 

On the 15th of June 2015, in Brussels, experts in cyber security and predictive policing from around Europe, representing all stakeholder groups (police, industry, policy making, civil society, tec

hnology and academia), expressed their concerns about the new societal challenges brought forward by the use of modern technologies and cyber-crime. The outcome of the debate is summarised in this short video.

Yvan de Mesmaeker on the changes in our threat environment

Document type: 
Interview/sound/video
Video: 
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
SOURCE Network
Abstract: 

Yvan de Mesmaeker is the Secretary General of the European Corporate Security Association (ECSA) and Professor at the Belgian National College for Senior Police Officers.

ECSA is an association representing over 300 security corporations that provides a trusted forum for discussions of mutual interest and to stimulate public private cooperation. This video interview is a part of a series of interviews with experts in the field of security for SOURCE Virtual centre of excellence for research support and coordination on societal security.

Made by Ólöf Söebech and Louise Baduel

Leen Van Duijn on the need to increase knowledge sharing of research and security institutions

Document type: 
Interview/sound/video
Video: 
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
SOURCE Network
Abstract: 

Leen van Duijn is the Director of National Security and Crisis Management at TNO – The Netherlands organisation for Applied Scientific Research.

The core research focus of the department is to develop concrete solutions to security and safety issues in the Netherlands and, increasingly, on an international level. This video interview is a part of a series of interviews with experts in the field of security for SOURCE Virtual centre of excellence for research support and coordination on societal security.

Made by Ólöf Söebech and Louise Baduel

European Union Internet Organised Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA) 2017

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
EUROPOL
Abstract: 

Each year, Europol’s European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) publishes the Internet Organised Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA), its flagship strategic report on key findings and emerging threats

and developments in cybercrime — threats that impact governments, businesses and citizens in the EU. The IOCTA provides key recommendations to law enforcement, policy makers and regulators to allow them to respond to cybercrime in an effective and concerted manner. The report focuses on the crime areas that fall under EC3’s mandate. These cybercrime priorities, which are determined by the EU Policy Cycle, are currently: Cyber-dependent crime, Online child sexual exploitation and Payment fraud. The most recent IOCTA also looks at an additional crime area, online criminal markets, both on the surface web and Darknet. It also addresses the convergence of cyber and terrorism. Another typical focus of the IOCTA are cross-cutting crime enablers, factors that straddle more than one crime area but are not necessarily inherently criminal themselves. These enablers include phishing/smishing/vishing, business email compromise, bulletproof hosting, anonymisation tools, criminal abuse of cryptocurrencies and money muling.

European Union Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment (SOCTA) 2017

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
EUROPOL
Abstract: 

The European Union (EU) Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment (SOCTA) 2017 is a detailed analysis of the threat of serious and organised crime facing the EU providing information for practi

tioners, decision-makers and the wider public. Europol is the EU’s law enforcement agency and assists the 28 EU Member States in their fight against serious international crime and terrorism. For the SOCTA 2017, Europol has undertaken the largest-ever data collection on serious and organised crime in the EU. Europol relied on thousands of contributions by Member States, Europol’s operational and strategic partners outside the EU and our institutional partners as well as operational intelligence held in Europol’s databases to produce the most detailed assessment of the nature and scale of criminal threats facing the EU and its Member States.

European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (Te-Sat) 2017

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
EUROPOL
Abstract: 

Europol’s annual EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) provides an overview of the terrorism phenomenon in the EU in a given year. The fight against terrorism is a top pri

ority for the EU and for Europol, and that means that TE-SAT is one of Europol’s most significant pieces of strategic analysis. It offers law enforcement officials, policymakers and the general public facts and figures on terrorism in the EU, while also identifying developing trends in this crime area, based on information that Member States make available to Europol. The report, which Europol has produced each year since 2007, charts the established and evolving drivers of terrorism. These drivers can change or vanish over time in response to political or socio-economic developments, merge with other ideologies or convictions and be the building blocks of new and sometimes very specific and highly individual motivations. The TE-SAT is prepared by experts at Europol and is based on information provided and verified by EU Member States and by Europol’s partners. It also relies on quantitative and qualitative data that Eurojust and the Member States provide.

CCTV as a tool for early police intervention: Preliminary lessons from nine case studies

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (1): 247–265
Abstract: 

This study explores the prospect of utilizing CCTV as an early intervention mechanism to detect and disrupt street-level activity that can lead to violence.

The analysis focuses on nine case studies in Newark, NJ, incorporating data from several sources, including video footage, computer-aided dispatch (CAD) system incident data, CAD event chronologies and face-to-face interviews with CCTV operators. The findings suggest that the benefits offered by CCTV, namely the instantaneous discovery and reporting of crime, may be rendered inconsequential by the process times associated with the differential-response policy of police dispatch. Potential methods by which police can more proactively utilize CCTV to prevent crime are discussed.

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