Knowledgebase

Number of results: 24

Yvan de Mesmaeker on the changes in our threat environment

Document type: 
Interview/sound/video
Video: 
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
SOURCE Network
Abstract: 

Yvan de Mesmaeker is the Secretary General of the European Corporate Security Association (ECSA) and Professor at the Belgian National College for Senior Police Officers.

ECSA is an association representing over 300 security corporations that provides a trusted forum for discussions of mutual interest and to stimulate public private cooperation. This video interview is a part of a series of interviews with experts in the field of security for SOURCE Virtual centre of excellence for research support and coordination on societal security.

Made by Ólöf Söebech and Louise Baduel

Leen Van Duijn on the need to increase knowledge sharing of research and security institutions

Document type: 
Interview/sound/video
Video: 
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
SOURCE Network
Abstract: 

Leen van Duijn is the Director of National Security and Crisis Management at TNO – The Netherlands organisation for Applied Scientific Research.

The core research focus of the department is to develop concrete solutions to security and safety issues in the Netherlands and, increasingly, on an international level. This video interview is a part of a series of interviews with experts in the field of security for SOURCE Virtual centre of excellence for research support and coordination on societal security.

Made by Ólöf Söebech and Louise Baduel

Crowdsourced surveillance and networked data

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 48 (1): 63–77
Abstract: 

Possibilities for crowdsourced surveillance have expanded in recent years as data uploaded to social networks can be mined, distributed, assembled, mapped, and analyzed by anyone with an uncensored

internet connection. These data points are necessarily fragmented and partial, open to interpretation, and rely on algorithms for retrieval and sorting. Yet despite these limitations, they have been used to produce complex representations of space, subjects, and power relations as internet users attempt to reconstruct and investigate events while they are developing. In this article, I consider one case of crowdsourced surveillance that emerged following the detonation of two bombs at the 2013 Boston Marathon. I focus on the actions of a particular forum on reddit.com, which would exert a significant influence on the events as they unfolded. The study describes how algorithmic affordances, internet cultures, surveillance imaginaries, and visual epistemologies contributed to the structuring of thought, action, and subjectivity in the moment of the event. I use this case study as a way to examine moments of entangled political complicity and resistance, highlighting the ways in which particular surveillance practices are deployed and feed back into the event amid its unfolding.

EU and NATO cybersecurity strategies and national cyber security strategies: a comparative analysis

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (4): 1151–1168
Abstract: 

Given the global nature of cyber threats, assurance of a cyber security policy is very important not only at organization level but also at national level.

Currently, cyber security as such is not independently regulated internationally; therefore the role of the EU and NATO in ensuring cyber security has become particularly significant. This article presents a study which compares the cyber security policies of the EU and NATO organizations. An analysis of how national cyber security strategies correspond with the cyber security policies and the strategic directions of these organizations has been carried out. We have also carried out a comparative study of the provision of national cyber security strategies of the EU and NATO. The study reveals that regardless of similar goals, namely assurance of cyber resilience, the selected harmonization and coordination approaches, as well as norms of national cybersecurity strategies, differ.

Big hover or big brother? Public attitudes about drone usage in domestic policing activities

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (4): 1027–1044
Abstract: 

Unmanned aerial systems (that is, UAS or drones) have been increasingly proposed and used by federal and state law enforcement agencies as an evolving technology for general surveillance, crime det

ection and criminal investigations. However, the use of UAS technology, in general, and within the particular context of domestic policing activities raises serious concerns about personal privacy and the greater intrusion of new forms of ‘big brother’ surveillance in people’s daily lives. On the basis of a national survey, the current study provides empirical evidence on public attitudes about UAS usage in various policing activities. Socio-demographic differences in the public support for drone usage in this context are also examined. Our general findings of context-specific variability in public support for UAS usage in policing operations are discussed in terms of their implications for developing public policy.

Policing Uncertainty: Intelligence, Security and Risk

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Intelligence and National Security, 27 (2): 187-205
Abstract: 

Today, the idea of risk is ubiquitous, a presence in debates across a range of fields, from investment banking to politics, from anthropology and sociology to health, environmental and cultural stu

dies. While this ubiquity attests to the importance of the concept it is at the same time a potential weakness in that it injects the term into a wide range of debates in each of which its meaning can be subject to different emphases and meanings. The notion of risk is of obvious importance to security intelligence, but here too its ubiquity has had an impact on specificity of meaning. While the term is widely used in both the profession and study of intelligence, its usage can carry different meanings and it can be used interchangeably with linked terms. Given the importance of the idea of risk to intelligence, clarity of meaning is essential. This article sets out to consider the meaning of, and relationship between, uncertainty and risk in a security intelligence context, propose a framework on which a common understanding can be built, and illustrate how this can help in thinking about the nature and role of security intelligence.

Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

This book is about explaining surveillance processes and practices in contemporary society.

Surveillance studies is a relatively new multi-disciplinary enterprise that aims to understand who watches who, how the watched participate in and sometimes question their surveillance, why surveillance occurs, and with what effects. This book brings together some of the world's leading surveillance scholars to discuss the "why" question. The field has been dominated, since the groundbreaking work of Michel Foucault, by the idea of the panopticon and this book explores why this metaphor has been central to discussions of surveillance, what is fruitful in the panoptic approach, and what other possible approaches can throw better light on the phenomena in question.Since the advent of networked computer databases, and especially since 9/11, questions of surveillance have come increasingly to the forefront of democratic, political and policy debates in the global north (and to an extent in the global south). Civil liberties, democratic participation and privacy are some of the issues that are raised by these developments. But little progress can be made in responding to these issues without an adequate understanding of how, how well and whether or not surveillance works. This book explores the theoretical questions in a way that is grounded in and attuned to empirical realities.

Resilience, Deterrence and Defence: Building strong cybersecurity for the EU - JOIN (2017) 450

Document type: 
Policy document
Publisher / Publication: 
European Commission / European External Action Service
Abstract: 

The European Commission and the High Representative propose a wide range of concrete measures to further strengthen the EU’s cybersecurity structures and capabilities with more cooperation between

the Member States and the different EU structures concerned. These measures are intended to ensure that the EU is better prepared to face the ever-increasing cybersecurity challenges. The approach set out in this Joint Communication aims at building greater resilience and strategic autonomy, boosting capabilities interms of technology and skills, as well as helping to build a strong single market. Additionally, it aims at a better deterence against cyber-attacks, by stepping up work to detect, trace and hold to account those responsible. 

Terror, Insecurity and Liberty: Illiberal Practices of Liberal Regimes after 9/11

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Although recent debate surrounding civil rights and liberties in post-9/11 Europe has focused on the forms, provisions and legal consequences of security-led policies, this volume takes an inter-di

sciplinary approach to explore how these policies have come to generate illiberal practices. The book argues that policies implemented in the name of protection and national security have had a strong effect on civil liberties, human rights and social cohesion - in particular, but not only, since 9/11. The book undertakes detailed sociological enquiries concerning security agencies, and analyses public discourses on the definition of the terrorist threat. In doing so, it aims to show that the current reframing of civil rights and liberties is in part a result of the very functioning of both the political and the security fields, in that it is embedded in a broad array of domestic and transnational political, administrative and bureaucratic stakes.

Intelligence tradecraft and the pre-crime approach to EU internal security governance

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Paper to the UACES 43rd Annual Conference, Leeds, 2-4 September 2013
Abstract: 

EU internal security policy has been in recent years progressively focused on prevention of threats and risks.

The 2010 Internal Security Strategy for the EU highlighted the need for ‘prevention and anticipation’ conceived as a proactive intelligence-led approach to EU internal security. A pre-crime framework has been widely applied in fields like security studies, police science, criminology, ethics, political sociology and political geography, owing to its inherent explanatory power. The core element of pre-crime approach is the selection and identification of the most probable among abstract risks and dispersed threats, and the profiling, or sorting out, of particular social groups or individuals posing presumably imminent threats. This paper aims at inserting the concept of intelligence tradecraft into the pre-crime analytical framework and verify the usefulness of such an approach to the study of EU internal security governance. The paper will focus on ‘intelligence process’ and ‘intelligence product’, i.e. how the stakeholders of EU internal security policy construct, modify and develop ‘products’ allowing for a better risk management and threat assessment in the context of precautionary and anticipatory attitudes towards EU security governance. 

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