Knowledgebase

Number of results: 38

The Humanitarian Politics of European Border Policing: Frontex and Border Police in Evros

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Political Sociology, Vol 9, No. 1: 53–69
Abstract: 

This paper explores humanitarianism in the practice of Frontex-assisted Greek border police in Evros and of Frontex at their headquarters in Warsaw.

Building on the increase in humanitarian justifications for border policing practices as well as the charges of a lack of humanity, the paper analyzes the relations between humanitarian responses and border policing where humanitarianism is used for framing and giving meaning to institutional and operational practices. In offering an interpretive view of border policing undertaken by people in their working lives across sites and scales, it builds on the critical literature addressing the multifaceted nature of border control in Europe today. At the same time, it speaks to wider debates about the double-sided nature of humanitarian governance concerned with care and control. It argues that while humanitarian motivations have implications for operations in the field and help to frame “good practice” at the policy level, humanitarianism should not be seen as additional or paradoxical to wider border policing operations within forms of governance developed to address the problems of population. Conflict arises in the paradox of protection between the subject of humanitarianism and policing, the population, and the object of border control, the territorially bounded state or regional unit.

 

News Frames and National Security - Covering Big Brother

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Cambridge University Press
Abstract: 

Did media coverage contribute to Americans' tendency to favor national security over civil liberties following the 9/11 attacks?

How did news framing of terrorist threats support the expanding surveillance state revealed by Edward Snowden? Douglas M. McLeod and Dhavan V. Shah explore the power of news coverage to render targeted groups suspicious and to spur support for government surveillance. They argue that the tendency of journalists to frame stories around individual targets of surveillance - personifying the domestic threat - shapes citizens' judgments about tolerance and participation, leading them to limit the civil liberties of a range of groups under scrutiny and to support 'Big Brother'.
 

Smart and secure borders through automated border control systems in the EU? The views of political stakeholders in the Member States

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Security, 26 (2): 207-225
Abstract: 

The European Commission launched the “Smart Borders” policy process in 2011 to enhance border security in the European Union (EU) using technologisation and harmonisation.

This includes the use of automated border control (ABC) systems. The Member States crucially shape the process, weighing security technologies and costs, privacy and rights, and further institutional choices. We examine the views of political stakeholders in four Member States by conducting a systematic empirical and comparative study unprecedented in the existing, political-theory-inspired research. In our Q methodological experiments, political stakeholders in Finland, Romania, Spain and the UK rank-ordered a sample of statements on Smart Borders, ABC and harmonisation. The factor analysis of the results yielded three main views: the first criticising ABC as a security technology, the second welcoming the security gains of automation and the third opposing harmonised border control. While impeding harmonisation, the results offer a consensus facilitating common policy.

Transnational Organized Crime and European Union: Aspects and Problems

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Chapter in: Human Rights in European Criminal Law, Stefano Ruggeri (ed.), Springer, pp 201-214
Abstract: 

The fight against criminal organizations and their ability to carry out illegal activities beyond the national borders has represented a “bridge head” in the European path towards the harmonization

of criminal laws in the member states. After considering the role played by the harmonization of criminal law in the European Union treaties, the study underlines how the difficulty in defining the concept of transnational organized crime could result in an excessive European intervention. In order to avoid such a risk, it is useful to refer to other relevant international sources, like the 2000 Palermo UN Convention, and also to recent European documents on the matter (in particular, a Resolution by the European Parliament of the 25th October 2011). The final part of the paper is dedicated to the necessity to reconsider the traditional guarantees in the new European dimension, especially in the light of the European Court of Human Rights and the European Charter of Fundamental Rights and their counterweight activity to prevent an unbalanced European intervention against organized crime.

Reconceptualising Cyber Security: Safeguarding Human Rights in the Era of Cyber Surveillance

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism, 6 (2): 32-40
Abstract: 

The cyber security discourse is dominated by states and corporations that focus on the protection of critical information infrastructure and databases.

The priority is the security of information systems and networks, rather than the protection of connected users. The dominance of war metaphors in the cyber security debates has produced a security dilemma, which is not sufficiently addressing the needs of people. This article underlines this shortcoming and views cyber security through a human-centric perspective. Freedom of expression and the right to privacy are under attack in the era of cyber surveillance. From a human-centric perspective such rights should be understood as a critical part of cyber security. Human rights protections need to be effectively addressed in the digital sphere and gain their place in the cyber security agendas.

Juggling the Balance between Preventive Security and Human Rights in Europe

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security and Human Rights, 26 (2-4): 126-146
Abstract: 

Within the European Union (EU), security issues are increasingly framed as risks and threats that can be controlled by preventive measures.

The EU has established several agencies, legal instruments and databases to facilitate the prevention of crime, terrorism and irregular migration. This article takes stock of the way in which the EU seeks to balance the preventive security logic with its own human rights framework. While human rights can jointly be considered an evolving normative framework in the EU, there is a need to identify which human rights are at risk and how (non-) compliance ought to be monitored.The article states some concerns about equal access to human rights as well as the lack of a strong general oversight mechanism. Continued structural attention should be given to ex ante human-rights impact assessments and there needs to be more emphasis on regular external evaluations of human rights compliance ex post facto. In relation to the external action of the EU, the EU must practice what it preaches and needs to reflect critically on the necessity and proportionality of precautionary security measures.

Big Data and smart devices and their impact on privacy

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
Directorate General for Internal Policies: Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE)
Abstract: 

The numerous debates triggered by the increased collection and processing of personal data for various - and often unaccountable - purposes are particularly vivid at the EU level.

Two interlinked, and to some extent conflicting, initiatives are relevant here: the development of EU strategies promoting a data-driven economy and the current reform of the EU personal data protection legal framework in the context of the adoption of a General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). In this context, and focusing on the development of Big Data practices, smart devices and the Internet of Things (IoT), this Study shows that the high degree of opacity of many contemporary data processing activities directly affects the right of the individuals to know what is being done with the data collected about them. This Study argues that the promotion of a data- driven economy should not underestimate the challenges raised for privacy and personal data protection and that strengthening the rights of digital citizens should be the main focus of the current debates around the GDPR. 

Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

This book is about explaining surveillance processes and practices in contemporary society.

Surveillance studies is a relatively new multi-disciplinary enterprise that aims to understand who watches who, how the watched participate in and sometimes question their surveillance, why surveillance occurs, and with what effects. This book brings together some of the world's leading surveillance scholars to discuss the "why" question. The field has been dominated, since the groundbreaking work of Michel Foucault, by the idea of the panopticon and this book explores why this metaphor has been central to discussions of surveillance, what is fruitful in the panoptic approach, and what other possible approaches can throw better light on the phenomena in question.Since the advent of networked computer databases, and especially since 9/11, questions of surveillance have come increasingly to the forefront of democratic, political and policy debates in the global north (and to an extent in the global south). Civil liberties, democratic participation and privacy are some of the issues that are raised by these developments. But little progress can be made in responding to these issues without an adequate understanding of how, how well and whether or not surveillance works. This book explores the theoretical questions in a way that is grounded in and attuned to empirical realities.

Routledge Handbook of Private Security Studies

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

The increasing privatization of security across the globe has been the subject of much debate and controversy, inciting fears of private warfare and even the collapse of the state.

This volume provides the first comprehensive overview of the range of issues raised by contemporary security privatization, offering both a survey of the numerous roles performed by private actors and an analysis of their implications and effects. Ranging from the mundane to the spectacular, from secretive intelligence gathering and neighbourhood surveillance to piracy control and warfare, this Handbook shows how private actors are involved in both domestic and international security provision and governance. It places this involvement in historical perspective, and demonstrates how the impact of security privatization goes well beyond the security field to influence diverse social, economic and political relationships and institutions. Finally, this volume analyses the evolving regulation of the global private security sector. Seeking to overcome the disciplinary boundaries that have plagued the study of private security, the Handbook promotes an interdisciplinary approach and contains contributions from a range of disciplines, including international relations, politics, criminology, law, sociology, geography and anthropology.

Eurobarometer - Gender-based violence

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Eurobarometer Special Survey 449
Abstract: 

This survey investigates the perceptions of EU citizens about gender-based violence.

Chapter I looks at general perceptions of domestic violence, in terms of perceived prevalence against both men and women. It also examines views of how acceptable such violence is or can be as well as personal awareness of both domestic violence and available support services. Finally the chapter looks at whether domestic violence is perceived as a “private matter”. Chapter II focuses on citizens’ views on the appropriate legal response to various forms of gender-based violence and looks at how these difference types of violence are viewed in terms of whether they are wrong and are or should be against the law. Chapter III looks at prevalence of sexual harassment more widely and where violence against women is most likely to take place. Finally it examines the extent to which respondents agree or disagree with a series of statements relating to perceptions of sexual violence against women. It also presents a series of different situations to respondents and examines whether any of these can ever justify sexual intercourse without consent. 

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