Knowledgebase

Number of results: 12

Poverty and the Critical Security Agenda

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Poverty and the Critical Security Agenda argues that poverty should be a central concern of security studies and critiques existing methodological approaches to poverty and 'well-being'.

Using the Philippines as a case study, this book is critical of approaches to poverty that portray the poor as passive objects as opposed to dynamic actors. With this in mind, the relationship between poverty and democracy, as a means to facilitating human security, is central. Poverty acts as a major behavioural force in international relations, not least for the state, and therefore merits increased visibility within the research agenda. This text is highly relevant for courses on international relations methodology and critical theory, development studies, security studies and international political economy.

Living Conditions in Europe - 2014 Edition

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
EUROSTAT Statistical Books
Abstract: 

This publication provides a picture of current living conditions in Europe, as well as the socio-economic factors a ecting the every- day life of Europeans.

Chapter 1 focuses on the nancial dimensions of poverty and inequality. Chapter 2 examines to what extent lack of adequate income can prevent people from a ording an adequate standard of living. Chapter 3 presents statistics with regard to housing quality, while, under Chapter 4, the interactions between living conditions and socio-economic factors, such as labour and health status, are examined. Finally, in Chapter 5, aspects of child pov- erty and social exclusion are presented. e majority of the indicators come from EU-SILC, with data up to 2012. 

Happiness and Economics: How the Economy and Institutions Affect Human Well-Being

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Princeton University Press
Abstract: 

Curiously, economists, whose discipline has much to do with human well-being, have shied away from factoring the study of happiness into their work.

Happiness, they might say, is an ''unscientific'' concept. This is the first book to establish empirically the link between happiness and economics--and between happiness and democracy. Two respected economists, Bruno S. Frey and Alois Stutzer, integrate insights and findings from psychology, where attempts to measure quality of life are well-documented, as well as from sociology and political science. They demonstrate how micro- and macro-economic conditions in the form of income, unemployment, and inflation affect happiness. The research is centered on Switzerland, whose varying degrees of direct democracy from one canton to another, all within a single economy, allow for political effects to be isolated from economic effects.

Not surprisingly, the authors confirm that unemployment and inflation nurture unhappiness. Their most striking revelation, however, is that the more developed the democratic institutions and the degree of local autonomy, the more satisfied people are with their lives. While such factors as rising income increase personal happiness only minimally, institutions that facilitate more individual involvement in politics (such as referendums) have a substantial effect. For countries such as the United States, where disillusionment with politics seems to be on the rise, such findings are especially significant. By applying econometrics to a real-world issue of general concern and yielding surprising results, Happiness and Economics promises to spark healthy debate over a wide range of the social sciences.

Risk Society. Towards a New Modernity

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Sage Publications Ltd
Abstract: 

This panoramic analysis of the condition of Western societies has been hailed as a classic.

This first English edition has taken its place as a core text of contemporary sociology alongside earlier typifications of society as postindustrial and current debates about the social dimensions of the postmodern. Underpinning the analysis is the notion of the `risk society'. The changing nature of society's relation to production and distribution is related to the environmental impact as a totalizing, globalizing economy based on scientific and technical knowledge becomes more central to social organization and social conflict. 

Toxic assets, turbulence and biopolitical security: Governing the crisis of global financial circulation

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 44 (2): 111-126
Abstract: 

Focusing on a highly significant governmental intervention in the global financial market crisis – the US Treasury Department’s Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP) of autumn 2008 – this article m

akes a threefold contribution to the growing literature concerned with the interstices of finance and security. First, the TARP is shown to have attempted to govern the turbulence not simply as a crisis of the markets, the banks and Wall Street, but as a problem of the biopolitical security of the US population. US$700 billion worth of toxic assets were to be purchased by the TARP in order to restore the opportunities afforded by uncertain global financial circulations for individual wealth and well-being. Second, by conceptualizing and exploring the TARP in Foucauldian terms as an ‘apparatus of security’, the article demonstrates how this concept can hold together analytical concerns with the biopolitical rationality of power, on the one hand, and the contingent, processual and lively forms taken by specific governmental orderings, on the other. The TARP apparatus certainly amounted to a biopolitical intervention in the crisis, but it only emerged from the relation between the discursive, material and institutional elements that made it possible. Third, the unplanned transformation of the TARP into an apparatus that targeted bank solvency and recapitalization rather than toxic assets is held, in effect, to have been a key moment that heralded a move towards techniques of preparedness and resilience designed to mitigate the dangers of uncertain global financial circulations.

An Important Failure: Knowledge Limits and the Financial Crisis

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Economy and Society, 41(3): 299-315
Abstract: 

This paper introduces a theme section on knowledge limits in and after the financial crisis.

It explores how and why practitioners have generally responded less conservatively to crisis than academics, and argues that academics within a variety of problematics could do more by reflecting critically on the heroic ideas about the role of knowledge which were current across the social sciences in the decade before the crisis. It then turns to introduce the section's papers before finally raising the possibility of a more explicitly political approach to understanding finance.

Underwriting Security

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 39 (2–3): 309–332
Abstract: 

This article enframes 'risk' as a biopolitical security technology.

It explains how biopolitics of security take life as their referent object of security; how the grid of intelligibility for biopolitics is economic; and how, in the second half of the 20th century, life also came to be understood as emergent being. Contingency is constitutive especially of the life of emergent being, and so the article argues that a biopolitics of security that seeks 'to make life live' cannot secure life against contingency but must secure life through governmental technologies of contingency. Risk is one of these technologies. The article also explains how risk has come to pervade the biopolitics of security of the 21st century, and how, through the way in which it is traded on the capital markets, it has begun to acquire the properties of money. The article closes by describing how the biopolitics of security differ from traditional prophylactic accounts of security, and how these biopolitics of security exceed the liberal political thinking that rationalizes and legitimates them.

Post-Quantum Cryptography

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

1 page fact sheet on the technology trends of Post-Quantum Cryptography

All widely used public-key cryptosystems such as RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman) and ECC (elliptic curve cryptography) could be broken by quantum computers. Post-quantum cryptography refers to (mostly public-key) cryptographic schemes that run on conventional (classical) computers and are not breakable using classical or quantum computers.

Homomorphic Encryption

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE Project
Abstract: 

1 page fact sheet on the technology trends of Momorphic Encryption

Momorphic Encryption is a kind of cryptography  where mathematical operations on the ciphertext are equivalent to  mathematical operations on the plaintext. This property allows the processing of encrypted data without former decryption of the data.  That means that the confidentiality of the data even during processing is guaranteed  in contrast to other  non-homomorphic  encryption  schemes.

Agent-based Modelling

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

1 page fact sheet on the technology trends of Agent-based Modelling

Agent-based models are a class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents  (both individual or collective entities such as organizations or groups) with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole. They  are an important tool for the emerging and rapidly evolving field of computational sociology and constitute an important link between  social sciences and complexity sciences.

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