Knowledgebase

Number of results: 17

The European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS)

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The concept of travel authorisations, as easier and smoother procedures than visas, was developed in parallel of progress made on electronic visas, which application is entirely done online.

It was first put in place in Australia in 1996 with the Electronic Travel Authorisation System and broadened to all EU citizens in 2008 through the eVisitor system. While Australia applies a universal visa regime, and the eVisitor form has the legal form of a visa, other countries started developing travel authorisations as an alternative to pre-vet visa free visitors.

The European Entry Exit System (EES)

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The idea of developing a European Entry and Exit System dates back to February 2013 with a first proposal published by the European Commission on a “Smart Borders Package” to better manage increase

d traveller flows and efficiently respond to security concerns. It was composed of 1) an Entry-Exit System (EES) to replace the passport stamping and have a record of overstays, 2) a Registered Traveller Programme (RTP) for frequent travellers to benefit from a pre-screening procedure and be able to use Automated Border Control (ABC) gates like EU citizens and 3) amendments to the Schengen Borders Code to integrate the above-mentioned changes

Video Interviews on “Security and Societal Issues: how to strike the good balance”

Document type: 
Interview/sound/video
Video: 
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
SOURCE Network
Abstract: 

During the organization of the Roundtable on “Security and Societal Issues: how to strike the good balance” that took place in Brussels on the 8th February 2016, three video interviews with the mai

n speakers were conducted.

Reconceptualising Cyber Security: Safeguarding Human Rights in the Era of Cyber Surveillance

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism, 6 (2): 32-40
Abstract: 

The cyber security discourse is dominated by states and corporations that focus on the protection of critical information infrastructure and databases.

The priority is the security of information systems and networks, rather than the protection of connected users. The dominance of war metaphors in the cyber security debates has produced a security dilemma, which is not sufficiently addressing the needs of people. This article underlines this shortcoming and views cyber security through a human-centric perspective. Freedom of expression and the right to privacy are under attack in the era of cyber surveillance. From a human-centric perspective such rights should be understood as a critical part of cyber security. Human rights protections need to be effectively addressed in the digital sphere and gain their place in the cyber security agendas.

Big Data and smart devices and their impact on privacy

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
Directorate General for Internal Policies: Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE)
Abstract: 

The numerous debates triggered by the increased collection and processing of personal data for various - and often unaccountable - purposes are particularly vivid at the EU level.

Two interlinked, and to some extent conflicting, initiatives are relevant here: the development of EU strategies promoting a data-driven economy and the current reform of the EU personal data protection legal framework in the context of the adoption of a General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). In this context, and focusing on the development of Big Data practices, smart devices and the Internet of Things (IoT), this Study shows that the high degree of opacity of many contemporary data processing activities directly affects the right of the individuals to know what is being done with the data collected about them. This Study argues that the promotion of a data- driven economy should not underestimate the challenges raised for privacy and personal data protection and that strengthening the rights of digital citizens should be the main focus of the current debates around the GDPR. 

Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

This book is about explaining surveillance processes and practices in contemporary society.

Surveillance studies is a relatively new multi-disciplinary enterprise that aims to understand who watches who, how the watched participate in and sometimes question their surveillance, why surveillance occurs, and with what effects. This book brings together some of the world's leading surveillance scholars to discuss the "why" question. The field has been dominated, since the groundbreaking work of Michel Foucault, by the idea of the panopticon and this book explores why this metaphor has been central to discussions of surveillance, what is fruitful in the panoptic approach, and what other possible approaches can throw better light on the phenomena in question.Since the advent of networked computer databases, and especially since 9/11, questions of surveillance have come increasingly to the forefront of democratic, political and policy debates in the global north (and to an extent in the global south). Civil liberties, democratic participation and privacy are some of the issues that are raised by these developments. But little progress can be made in responding to these issues without an adequate understanding of how, how well and whether or not surveillance works. This book explores the theoretical questions in a way that is grounded in and attuned to empirical realities.

Routledge Handbook of Private Security Studies

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

The increasing privatization of security across the globe has been the subject of much debate and controversy, inciting fears of private warfare and even the collapse of the state.

This volume provides the first comprehensive overview of the range of issues raised by contemporary security privatization, offering both a survey of the numerous roles performed by private actors and an analysis of their implications and effects. Ranging from the mundane to the spectacular, from secretive intelligence gathering and neighbourhood surveillance to piracy control and warfare, this Handbook shows how private actors are involved in both domestic and international security provision and governance. It places this involvement in historical perspective, and demonstrates how the impact of security privatization goes well beyond the security field to influence diverse social, economic and political relationships and institutions. Finally, this volume analyses the evolving regulation of the global private security sector. Seeking to overcome the disciplinary boundaries that have plagued the study of private security, the Handbook promotes an interdisciplinary approach and contains contributions from a range of disciplines, including international relations, politics, criminology, law, sociology, geography and anthropology.

Eurobarometer - Data Protection

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Special Eurobarometer 431
Abstract: 

This survey is designed to support the finalisation of the data protection reform by studying the views of EU citizens about issues surrounding data protection. It first looks at the level of

control respondents feel they have over the personal data they provide online, their concerns about any perceived lack of control and about the monitoring of their activities. Secondly, the survey deals with the respondents’ attitudes to providing personal information and issues such as online profiling. They were then asked about their awareness of their rights, and whether they know about their national public authority in charge of data protection. Finally, whether they would complain to this or another agency should their data ever be lost or stolen. People’s expectations are also evaluated in terms of whether they think they should have to give express permission for their data to be gathered and used. Respondents were asked whether they trust various authorities and bodies to protect their information, and what they would do and what they would expect to happen should their data be lost or stolen. The survey then tackled the respondents’ level of knowledge when it comes to the conditions of data collection, and whether they read the privacy statements provided by online services. Finally, the level of awareness of privacy settings on social networking sites was discussed, with respondents asked how easy they find it to change the settings, or why they have not done so. A last section deals with the way in which Europeans use the Internet. 

The US surveillance programmes and their impact on EU citizens' fundamental rights

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Parliament / LIBE
Abstract: 

In light of the recent PRISM-related revelations, this briefing note analyzes the impact of US surveillance programmes on European citizens’ rights.

The note explores the scope of surveillance that can be carried out under the US FISA Amendments Act 2008, and related practices of the US authorities which have very strong implications for EU data sovereignty and the protection of European citizens’ rights. 

National Programmes for Mass Surveillance of Personal Data in EU Member States and their Compatibility wit EU Law

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
European Parliament / LIBE Committee
Abstract: 

In the wake of the disclosures surrounding PRISM and other US surveillance programmes, this study makes an assessment of the large-scale surveillance practices by a selection of EU member states: t

he UK, Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands. Given the large-scale nature of surveillance practices at stake, which represent a reconfiguration of traditional intelligence gathering, the study contends that an analysis of European surveillance programmes cannot be reduced to a question of balance between data protection versus national security, but has to be framed in terms of collective freedoms and democracy. It finds that four of the five EU member states selected for in-depth examination are engaging in some form of large-scale interception and surveillance of communication data, and identifies parallels and discrepancies between these programmes and the NSA-run operations. The study argues that these surveillance programmes do not stand outside the realm of EU intervention but can be engaged from an EU law perspective via (i) an understanding of national security in a democratic rule of law framework where fundamental human rights standards and judicial oversight constitute key standards; (ii) the risks presented to the internal security of the Union as a whole as well as the privacy of EU citizens as data owners, and (iii) the potential spillover into the activities and responsibilities of EU agencies. The study then presents a set of policy recommendations to the European Parliament. 

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