Knowledgebase

Number of results: 21

Improving the Involvement of Digital Volunteers in Disaster Management

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Conference on Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction ITDRR 2016: Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction pp 214-224
Abstract: 

Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has been seen as useful information in times of disasters.

Several authors have shown that VGI is useful for coping with preparedness and response phases of disaster management. However, because it is still a young technology, the use of VGI remains uncertain, due to its lack of strong reliability and validity. It is our assumption that to improve reliability and validity the promotion of citizen engagement (CE) is needed. CE is not new topic, but in the digital humanitarian context, it involves important factors that are not yet considered by disaster managers, such as communication processes, motivation of volunteers, different media for production of information, etc. To fill this gap, we identified a set of preliminary factors which should be considered to promote the involvement of volunteers in disaster management. These factors were derived from critical review of CE literature and from an analysis of lessons learned from an experiment on interaction with citizens carried out in context of the EU-project “DRIVER – Driving Innovation in Crisis Management for European Resilience”.

 

EU Emergency Response Policies and NGOs

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Springer
Abstract: 

This book analyses trends and changes in the European Union’s (EU) humanitarian aid policy, by focusing on the performance of Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs).

NGOs have developed strong relationships with international institutions but have also maintained direct interaction with EU member states. The result is a multi-layered process in which national interests, common values, universal principles and global duties meet and interact. By combining a deepening of the theoretical debate with the use of empirical data on the funding of NGO projects by EU institutions and member states, the book significantly furthers our understanding of the complex relationship between these actors. It will appeal to students and scholars interested in EU politics, global security, and international aid, as well as practitioners in the humanitarian field. 

News Frames and National Security - Covering Big Brother

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Cambridge University Press
Abstract: 

Did media coverage contribute to Americans' tendency to favor national security over civil liberties following the 9/11 attacks?

How did news framing of terrorist threats support the expanding surveillance state revealed by Edward Snowden? Douglas M. McLeod and Dhavan V. Shah explore the power of news coverage to render targeted groups suspicious and to spur support for government surveillance. They argue that the tendency of journalists to frame stories around individual targets of surveillance - personifying the domestic threat - shapes citizens' judgments about tolerance and participation, leading them to limit the civil liberties of a range of groups under scrutiny and to support 'Big Brother'.
 

The economics of private security expenditure: The influence of perceptions of crime

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (2): 401-416
Abstract: 

Given that crime is a complex societal problem, the argument to embrace interdisciplinary scholarship seems an obvious one.

The study of crime and its control, however, has largely remained multidisciplinary in nature. In this article, we provide an interdisciplinary, accessible economic model for understanding choices by individuals, as well as demonstrate the application of self-reported life satisfaction data to the issue of property crime. We find that: individuals’ perceptions of crime in their local area are far greater than actual levels of crime; the gap between perceived and real crime is widening; and real crime rates detract more from an individual’s self-reported life satisfaction than perceived rates of crime. However, perceived rates of crime have an adverse impact on life satisfaction beyond those associated with real crime. Together, these results suggest that societal welfare could be significantly enhanced by reducing individual’s perceptions of crime, irrespective of any changes in the real crime rate.

The economics of private security expenditure: The influence of perceptions of crime

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (2): 401-416
Abstract: 

Given that crime is a complex societal problem, the argument to embrace interdisciplinary scholarship seems an obvious one.

The study of crime and its control, however, has largely remained multidisciplinary in nature. In this article, we provide an interdisciplinary, accessible economic model for understanding choices by individuals, as well as demonstrate the application of self-reported life satisfaction data to the issue of property crime. We find that: individuals’ perceptions of crime in their local area are far greater than actual levels of crime; the gap between perceived and real crime is widening; and real crime rates detract more from an individual’s self-reported life satisfaction than perceived rates of crime. However, perceived rates of crime have an adverse impact on life satisfaction beyond those associated with real crime. Together, these results suggest that societal welfare could be significantly enhanced by reducing individual’s perceptions of crime, irrespective of any changes in the real crime rate.

A geographic approach for combining social media and authoritative data towards identifying useful information for disaster management

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 29 (4): 667-689
Abstract: 

In recent years, social media emerged as a potential resource to improve the management of crisis situations such as disasters triggered by natural hazards.

Although there is a growing research body concerned with the analysis of the usage of social media during disasters, most previous work has concentrated on using social media as a stand-alone information source, whereas its combination with other information sources holds a still underexplored potential. This article presents an approach to enhance the identification of relevant messages from social media that relies upon the relations between georeferenced social media messages as Volunteered Geographic Information and geographic features of flood phenomena as derived from authoritative data (sensor data, hydrological data and digital elevation models). We apply this approach to examine the micro-blogging text messages of the Twitter platform (tweets) produced during the River Elbe Flood of June 2013 in Germany. This is performed by means of a statistical analysis aimed at identifying general spatial patterns in the occurrence of flood-related tweets that may be associated with proximity to and severity of flood events. The results show that messages near (up to 10 km) to severely flooded areas have a much higher probability of being related to floods. In this manner, we conclude that the geographic approach proposed here provides a reliable quantitative indicator of the usefulness of messages from social media by leveraging the existing knowledge about natural hazards such as floods, thus being valuable for disaster management in both crisis response and preventive monitoring.

Resilience and (in)security: Practices, subjects, temporalities

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 46 (1): 3-14
Abstract: 

Diverse, sometimes even contradictory concepts and practices of resilience have proliferated into a wide range of security policies.

We problematize and critically discuss how these forms of resilience change environments, create subjects, link temporalities, and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs to be conceptualized and investigated in plural terms. We use temporalities and subjectivities as key analytical aspects to investigate the plural instantiations of resilience in actual political practice. These two issues – subjectivity and temporality – form the overall context for the special issue and are core themes for all the articles collected here.

The state of the art in societal impact assessment for security research

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Science and Public Policy, 42 (3): 339-354
Abstract: 

This paper sets out a structured methodology for conducting a societal impact assessment (SIA) of security research and security measure implementation.

It first provides an overview of the need for and role of SIA, then presents an account of the existing impact assessment methodologies that have influenced this guide. The paper then describes the core methodology based upon an iterative approach to six key sectors of impact, then provides analytical questions for use in this process, before setting out a step-by-step process guideline. This guideline includes guidance on identifying stakeholders and incorporating best practice in impact assessment. Guidance on the content of an SIA report is then provided. The paper concludes with recommendations as how to best embed such a methodology within the broader security research process. The methodology has particular relevance for security research conducted within the EU.

Eurobarometer - Europeans' attitude towards Security

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Eurobarometer Special Survey 464b
Abstract: 

The aim of this report is to analyse the results of the questions asked regarding citizens’ overall awareness, experiences and perceptions of security.

The survey explores the issue of security by looking at a whole host of areas: overall perceptions of security and threats, perceptions of the actions taken by the police and other law enforcement authorities to combat those threats, and their attitudes toward national and international cooperation in dealing with the various security challenges faced by the Member States of the EU. 

Living Conditions in Europe - 2014 Edition

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
EUROSTAT Statistical Books
Abstract: 

This publication provides a picture of current living conditions in Europe, as well as the socio-economic factors a ecting the every- day life of Europeans.

Chapter 1 focuses on the nancial dimensions of poverty and inequality. Chapter 2 examines to what extent lack of adequate income can prevent people from a ording an adequate standard of living. Chapter 3 presents statistics with regard to housing quality, while, under Chapter 4, the interactions between living conditions and socio-economic factors, such as labour and health status, are examined. Finally, in Chapter 5, aspects of child pov- erty and social exclusion are presented. e majority of the indicators come from EU-SILC, with data up to 2012. 

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