Knowledgebase

Number of results: 29

The European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS)

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The concept of travel authorisations, as easier and smoother procedures than visas, was developed in parallel of progress made on electronic visas, which application is entirely done online.

It was first put in place in Australia in 1996 with the Electronic Travel Authorisation System and broadened to all EU citizens in 2008 through the eVisitor system. While Australia applies a universal visa regime, and the eVisitor form has the legal form of a visa, other countries started developing travel authorisations as an alternative to pre-vet visa free visitors.

The European Entry Exit System (EES)

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The idea of developing a European Entry and Exit System dates back to February 2013 with a first proposal published by the European Commission on a “Smart Borders Package” to better manage increase

d traveller flows and efficiently respond to security concerns. It was composed of 1) an Entry-Exit System (EES) to replace the passport stamping and have a record of overstays, 2) a Registered Traveller Programme (RTP) for frequent travellers to benefit from a pre-screening procedure and be able to use Automated Border Control (ABC) gates like EU citizens and 3) amendments to the Schengen Borders Code to integrate the above-mentioned changes

How to address security threats - Ida Haisman The Hague Security Delta

Document type: 
Interview/sound/video
Video: 
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Video interview made for SOURCE
Abstract: 

Ida Haisma is the director of The Hague Security Delta (HSD), the largest security cluster in Europe, where businesses, governments and knowledge institutions work together on innovation and knowle

dge in the field of safety and security. This video interview is a part of a series of interviews with experts in the field of security for SOURCE Virtual centre of excellence for research support and coordination on societal security http://www.societalsecurity.net/ Made by Ólöf Söebech and Louise Baduel

Juggling the Balance between Preventive Security and Human Rights in Europe

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security and Human Rights, 26 (2-4): 126-146
Abstract: 

Within the European Union (EU), security issues are increasingly framed as risks and threats that can be controlled by preventive measures.

The EU has established several agencies, legal instruments and databases to facilitate the prevention of crime, terrorism and irregular migration. This article takes stock of the way in which the EU seeks to balance the preventive security logic with its own human rights framework. While human rights can jointly be considered an evolving normative framework in the EU, there is a need to identify which human rights are at risk and how (non-) compliance ought to be monitored.The article states some concerns about equal access to human rights as well as the lack of a strong general oversight mechanism. Continued structural attention should be given to ex ante human-rights impact assessments and there needs to be more emphasis on regular external evaluations of human rights compliance ex post facto. In relation to the external action of the EU, the EU must practice what it preaches and needs to reflect critically on the necessity and proportionality of precautionary security measures.

Big Data and smart devices and their impact on privacy

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
Directorate General for Internal Policies: Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE)
Abstract: 

The numerous debates triggered by the increased collection and processing of personal data for various - and often unaccountable - purposes are particularly vivid at the EU level.

Two interlinked, and to some extent conflicting, initiatives are relevant here: the development of EU strategies promoting a data-driven economy and the current reform of the EU personal data protection legal framework in the context of the adoption of a General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). In this context, and focusing on the development of Big Data practices, smart devices and the Internet of Things (IoT), this Study shows that the high degree of opacity of many contemporary data processing activities directly affects the right of the individuals to know what is being done with the data collected about them. This Study argues that the promotion of a data- driven economy should not underestimate the challenges raised for privacy and personal data protection and that strengthening the rights of digital citizens should be the main focus of the current debates around the GDPR. 

Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

This book is about explaining surveillance processes and practices in contemporary society.

Surveillance studies is a relatively new multi-disciplinary enterprise that aims to understand who watches who, how the watched participate in and sometimes question their surveillance, why surveillance occurs, and with what effects. This book brings together some of the world's leading surveillance scholars to discuss the "why" question. The field has been dominated, since the groundbreaking work of Michel Foucault, by the idea of the panopticon and this book explores why this metaphor has been central to discussions of surveillance, what is fruitful in the panoptic approach, and what other possible approaches can throw better light on the phenomena in question.Since the advent of networked computer databases, and especially since 9/11, questions of surveillance have come increasingly to the forefront of democratic, political and policy debates in the global north (and to an extent in the global south). Civil liberties, democratic participation and privacy are some of the issues that are raised by these developments. But little progress can be made in responding to these issues without an adequate understanding of how, how well and whether or not surveillance works. This book explores the theoretical questions in a way that is grounded in and attuned to empirical realities.

Eurobarometer - Gender-based violence

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Eurobarometer Special Survey 449
Abstract: 

This survey investigates the perceptions of EU citizens about gender-based violence.

Chapter I looks at general perceptions of domestic violence, in terms of perceived prevalence against both men and women. It also examines views of how acceptable such violence is or can be as well as personal awareness of both domestic violence and available support services. Finally the chapter looks at whether domestic violence is perceived as a “private matter”. Chapter II focuses on citizens’ views on the appropriate legal response to various forms of gender-based violence and looks at how these difference types of violence are viewed in terms of whether they are wrong and are or should be against the law. Chapter III looks at prevalence of sexual harassment more widely and where violence against women is most likely to take place. Finally it examines the extent to which respondents agree or disagree with a series of statements relating to perceptions of sexual violence against women. It also presents a series of different situations to respondents and examines whether any of these can ever justify sexual intercourse without consent. 

Imprisoning Communities - How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Oxford University Press Canada
Abstract: 

At no time in history, and certainly in no other democratic society, have prisons been filled so quickly and to such capacity than in the United States.

And nowhere has this growth been more concentrated than in the disadvantaged--and primarily minority--neighborhoods of America's largest urban cities. In the most impoverished places, as much as 20% of the adult men are locked up on any given day, and there is hardly a family without a father, son, brother, or uncle who has not been behind bars.

While the effects of going to and returning home from prison are well-documented, little attention has been paid to the impact of removal on neighborhoods where large numbers of individuals have been imprisoned. In the first detailed, empirical exploration of the effects of mass incarceration on poor places, Imprisoning Communities demonstrates that in high doses incarceration contributes to the very social problems it is intended to solve: it breaks up family and social networks; deprives siblings, spouses, and parents of emotional and financial support; and threatens the economic and political infrastructure of already struggling neighborhoods. Especially at risk are children who, research shows, are more likely to commit a crime if a father or brother has been to prison. Clear makes the counterintuitive point that when incarceration concentrates at high levels, crime rates will go up. Removal, in other words, has exactly the opposite of its intended effect: it destabilizes the community, thus further reducing public safety.

Demonstrating that the current incarceration policy in urban America does more harm than good, from increasing crime to widening racial disparities and diminished life chances for youths, Todd Clear argues that we cannot overcome the problem of mass incarceration concentrated in poor places without incorporating an idea of community justice into our failing correctional and criminal justice systems.

European Union Research on Human Rights, Conflicts and Security in the 6th Framework Programme and the first period of 7th Framework Programme

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
European Commission
Abstract: 

Research on factors that foster the protection and enjoyment of human rights, or lead to human rights' violation, is an important knowledge base for policies in this field.

Only through the production of the 'best available knowledge' concerning which human rights are threatened or violated, why, by who, in which context, to what degree and – conversely- which rules, incentives, strategies, actors can prevent such violations, can effective policies be designed and implemented. The Research Framework Programme (FP) includes a programme on social sciences and humanities that has been addressing certain political and social rights in the EU context, certain minority rights and other human rights in the relation to security and violent conflicts, and –while rather marginally so far- specific human rights issues in the context of globalisation. Such research includes the analysis of legal norms, social behaviour and perceptions, political regimes, economic structures, and/or culture. This preliminary 'stock-taking' contribution primarily focuses on human rights research in relation to conflicts and security as part of a broader research agenda dealing with human rights also from other perspectives. 

Terror, Insecurity and Liberty: Illiberal Practices of Liberal Regimes after 9/11

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Although recent debate surrounding civil rights and liberties in post-9/11 Europe has focused on the forms, provisions and legal consequences of security-led policies, this volume takes an inter-di

sciplinary approach to explore how these policies have come to generate illiberal practices. The book argues that policies implemented in the name of protection and national security have had a strong effect on civil liberties, human rights and social cohesion - in particular, but not only, since 9/11. The book undertakes detailed sociological enquiries concerning security agencies, and analyses public discourses on the definition of the terrorist threat. In doing so, it aims to show that the current reframing of civil rights and liberties is in part a result of the very functioning of both the political and the security fields, in that it is embedded in a broad array of domestic and transnational political, administrative and bureaucratic stakes.

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