Knowledgebase

Number of results: 29

The European Integrated Border Management Concept- SOURCE legal card

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The integration of border management at the European level is expressly foreseen in EU primary law.

 Article 77(2)(d) of the TFEU includes the progressive introduction of a European IBM system among the goals to be achieved by the EU policies on borders checks, asylum and migration

The European Integrated Border Management (EIBM) concept constitutes a part of the strategy that the EU has progressively elaborated “to compensate” for the abolition of internal borders within the Schengen areais. This concept is based on the assumption that strengthened operational and technical cooperation at the EU external borders is necessary for both facilitating the legitimate movement of goods and persons and for the detection, prevention and reduction of irregular migration and cross-border crime

The implementation and future development of the European IBM concept falls under the “shared responsibility or competences” between EU and Member States’ actors. It must go hand-to-hand with Lisbon Treaty standards, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, and EU secondary (Schengen-related) legislation – and in particular the SBC

 

SOURCE Legal Card – Internal Border Controls in the Schengen Area

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The Schengen Borders Code (Regulation (EU) 2016/399) provides the legal framework for a common approach within the Schengen area for internal and external border controls.

The guiding principles of the Schengen Borders Code (SBC) are the absence of internal border controls and common rules on external border controls (Art. 1 SBC).

As of December 2018, 22 of the 28 EU Member States, excl. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the UK, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, participate in the Schengen Area.

The absence of internal border controls espoused in the SBC entails that all persons may travel freely within the Schengen area without being subjected to border checks (Art. 22 SBC). Member States remain entitled to police checks (as long as they do not have an equivalent effect to border checks), security controls at sea- and airports, and checks relating to the legal obligation to carry a valid papers and document (Art. 23 SBC).

Under exceptional circumstances, the Schengen Borders Code provides for the possibility to temporarily reintroduce controls at the internal borders (Artt. 25-35 SBC). Internal border controls may be temporarily reintroduced only as a last resort (Art. 25(2) SBC), must comply with the criteria for their temporary reintroduction (in accordance with Artt. 26 and 30 SBC), and must follow the proper procedure and limitations (under Artt. 27-29 SBC).
 

The European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS)

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The concept of travel authorisations, as easier and smoother procedures than visas, was developed in parallel of progress made on electronic visas, which application is entirely done online.

It was first put in place in Australia in 1996 with the Electronic Travel Authorisation System and broadened to all EU citizens in 2008 through the eVisitor system. While Australia applies a universal visa regime, and the eVisitor form has the legal form of a visa, other countries started developing travel authorisations as an alternative to pre-vet visa free visitors.

The European Entry Exit System (EES)

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The idea of developing a European Entry and Exit System dates back to February 2013 with a first proposal published by the European Commission on a “Smart Borders Package” to better manage increase

d traveller flows and efficiently respond to security concerns. It was composed of 1) an Entry-Exit System (EES) to replace the passport stamping and have a record of overstays, 2) a Registered Traveller Programme (RTP) for frequent travellers to benefit from a pre-screening procedure and be able to use Automated Border Control (ABC) gates like EU citizens and 3) amendments to the Schengen Borders Code to integrate the above-mentioned changes

The Humanitarian Politics of European Border Policing: Frontex and Border Police in Evros

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Political Sociology, Vol 9, No. 1: 53–69
Abstract: 

This paper explores humanitarianism in the practice of Frontex-assisted Greek border police in Evros and of Frontex at their headquarters in Warsaw.

Building on the increase in humanitarian justifications for border policing practices as well as the charges of a lack of humanity, the paper analyzes the relations between humanitarian responses and border policing where humanitarianism is used for framing and giving meaning to institutional and operational practices. In offering an interpretive view of border policing undertaken by people in their working lives across sites and scales, it builds on the critical literature addressing the multifaceted nature of border control in Europe today. At the same time, it speaks to wider debates about the double-sided nature of humanitarian governance concerned with care and control. It argues that while humanitarian motivations have implications for operations in the field and help to frame “good practice” at the policy level, humanitarianism should not be seen as additional or paradoxical to wider border policing operations within forms of governance developed to address the problems of population. Conflict arises in the paradox of protection between the subject of humanitarianism and policing, the population, and the object of border control, the territorially bounded state or regional unit.

 

Security Union - A Europe that protects

Document type: 
Policy document
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Commission
Abstract: 

In this Factsheet, the European Commission outlines the state of play regarding legislative initiatives aimed at the completion of the Security Union

Smartening border security in the European Union: An associational inquiry

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 47 (4): 292–309
Abstract: 

This contribution asks how the reliance on mass dataveillance of travellers is sustained as a central policy option in the governance of EU border security.

It examines this question by analysing a recent initiative of the European Commission proposing the establishment of EU ‘smart borders’. The analysis draws from a set of thinking tools developed by the sociology of association in the field of science and technology studies. The contribution argues that in order to grasp policy outcomes such as smart borders, security studies would benefit from adopting a compositional outlook on agency, where action is seen as the effect of associated entities. Looking at the smartening of EU borders, the article finds that this process is held together by multiple translations and enrolments through which the technical side of dataveillance – platforms, automated gates, matching systems, and so forth – has become associated with the processes of policymaking on border security and sustains the furtherance of mass dataveillance.

Smart and secure borders through automated border control systems in the EU? The views of political stakeholders in the Member States

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Security, 26 (2): 207-225
Abstract: 

The European Commission launched the “Smart Borders” policy process in 2011 to enhance border security in the European Union (EU) using technologisation and harmonisation.

This includes the use of automated border control (ABC) systems. The Member States crucially shape the process, weighing security technologies and costs, privacy and rights, and further institutional choices. We examine the views of political stakeholders in four Member States by conducting a systematic empirical and comparative study unprecedented in the existing, political-theory-inspired research. In our Q methodological experiments, political stakeholders in Finland, Romania, Spain and the UK rank-ordered a sample of statements on Smart Borders, ABC and harmonisation. The factor analysis of the results yielded three main views: the first criticising ABC as a security technology, the second welcoming the security gains of automation and the third opposing harmonised border control. While impeding harmonisation, the results offer a consensus facilitating common policy.

Knowledge of practice: A multi-sited event ethnography of border security fairs in Europe and North America

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 48 (3): 187–205
Abstract: 

This article takes the reader inside four border security fairs in Europe and North America to examine the knowledge practices of border security professionals.

Building on the border security as practice research agenda, the analysis focuses on the production, circulation, and consumption of scarce forms of knowledge. To explore situated knowledge of border security practices, I develop an approach to multi-sited event ethnography to observe and interpret knowledge that may be hard to access at the security fairs. The analysis focuses on mechanisms for disseminating and distributing scarce forms of knowledge, technological materializations of situated knowledge, expressions of transversal knowledge of security problems, how masculinities structure knowledge in gendered ways, and how unease is expressed through imagined futures in order to anticipate emergent solutions to proposed security problems. The article concludes by reflecting on the contradictions at play at fairs and how to address such contradictions through alternative knowledges and practices.

Cross-border crime patterns unveiled by exchange of DNA profiles in the European Union

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 29 (4): 640-660
Abstract: 

The aim of this study was to make a head start with unveiling transnational spatial patterns in offending.

To that end, data are used from DNA profile exchange between The Netherlands and 18 other EU member states that have implemented EU legislation on forensic cooperation. Information was collected on all DNA stains entered into the database, including the region in The Netherlands where the stain was secured, the type of crime and how many matching DNA profiles had been identified in each of the other 18 countries. The results suggest that currently the profiles of offenders who are active in other Prüm countries make up for about 4 per cent of all DNA stain profiles in the Dutch DNA database. The highest share of cross-border matches is found in the southeastern part of The Netherlands, where The Netherlands borders one of the most densely populated regions of Germany.

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