Knowledgebase

Number of results: 23

The European Integrated Border Management Concept- SOURCE legal card

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The integration of border management at the European level is expressly foreseen in EU primary law.

 Article 77(2)(d) of the TFEU includes the progressive introduction of a European IBM system among the goals to be achieved by the EU policies on borders checks, asylum and migration

The European Integrated Border Management (EIBM) concept constitutes a part of the strategy that the EU has progressively elaborated “to compensate” for the abolition of internal borders within the Schengen areais. This concept is based on the assumption that strengthened operational and technical cooperation at the EU external borders is necessary for both facilitating the legitimate movement of goods and persons and for the detection, prevention and reduction of irregular migration and cross-border crime

The implementation and future development of the European IBM concept falls under the “shared responsibility or competences” between EU and Member States’ actors. It must go hand-to-hand with Lisbon Treaty standards, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, and EU secondary (Schengen-related) legislation – and in particular the SBC

 

The European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS)

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The concept of travel authorisations, as easier and smoother procedures than visas, was developed in parallel of progress made on electronic visas, which application is entirely done online.

It was first put in place in Australia in 1996 with the Electronic Travel Authorisation System and broadened to all EU citizens in 2008 through the eVisitor system. While Australia applies a universal visa regime, and the eVisitor form has the legal form of a visa, other countries started developing travel authorisations as an alternative to pre-vet visa free visitors.

Cross-border crime patterns unveiled by exchange of DNA profiles in the European Union

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 29 (4): 640-660
Abstract: 

The aim of this study was to make a head start with unveiling transnational spatial patterns in offending.

To that end, data are used from DNA profile exchange between The Netherlands and 18 other EU member states that have implemented EU legislation on forensic cooperation. Information was collected on all DNA stains entered into the database, including the region in The Netherlands where the stain was secured, the type of crime and how many matching DNA profiles had been identified in each of the other 18 countries. The results suggest that currently the profiles of offenders who are active in other Prüm countries make up for about 4 per cent of all DNA stain profiles in the Dutch DNA database. The highest share of cross-border matches is found in the southeastern part of The Netherlands, where The Netherlands borders one of the most densely populated regions of Germany.

Security versus Justice? Police and Judicial Cooperation in the European Union

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

One of the most dynamic areas of EU law since the great changes brought to the EU constitutional order by the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999 has been cooperation in the fields of policing and criminal ju

stice. Both fields have already been the subject of substantial legislative effort in the EU and an increasing amount of judicial activity in the European Court of Justice. In 2007 - after the Constitutional Treaty of 2004 failed - the new Reform Treaty planned very substantive changes to these policies. Bringing together a wide-ranging set of topics and contributors, this book enables readers to understand these changes by examining three key questions: how did we get to the Reform Treaty; what have been - and still are - the key struggles in competence; and how do the changes fit into the transformation of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the EU?

Transnational Organized Crime and European Union: Aspects and Problems

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Chapter in: Human Rights in European Criminal Law, Stefano Ruggeri (ed.), Springer, pp 201-214
Abstract: 

The fight against criminal organizations and their ability to carry out illegal activities beyond the national borders has represented a “bridge head” in the European path towards the harmonization

of criminal laws in the member states. After considering the role played by the harmonization of criminal law in the European Union treaties, the study underlines how the difficulty in defining the concept of transnational organized crime could result in an excessive European intervention. In order to avoid such a risk, it is useful to refer to other relevant international sources, like the 2000 Palermo UN Convention, and also to recent European documents on the matter (in particular, a Resolution by the European Parliament of the 25th October 2011). The final part of the paper is dedicated to the necessity to reconsider the traditional guarantees in the new European dimension, especially in the light of the European Court of Human Rights and the European Charter of Fundamental Rights and their counterweight activity to prevent an unbalanced European intervention against organized crime.

Eurobarometer - Gender-based violence

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Eurobarometer Special Survey 449
Abstract: 

This survey investigates the perceptions of EU citizens about gender-based violence.

Chapter I looks at general perceptions of domestic violence, in terms of perceived prevalence against both men and women. It also examines views of how acceptable such violence is or can be as well as personal awareness of both domestic violence and available support services. Finally the chapter looks at whether domestic violence is perceived as a “private matter”. Chapter II focuses on citizens’ views on the appropriate legal response to various forms of gender-based violence and looks at how these difference types of violence are viewed in terms of whether they are wrong and are or should be against the law. Chapter III looks at prevalence of sexual harassment more widely and where violence against women is most likely to take place. Finally it examines the extent to which respondents agree or disagree with a series of statements relating to perceptions of sexual violence against women. It also presents a series of different situations to respondents and examines whether any of these can ever justify sexual intercourse without consent. 

Imprisoning Communities - How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Oxford University Press Canada
Abstract: 

At no time in history, and certainly in no other democratic society, have prisons been filled so quickly and to such capacity than in the United States.

And nowhere has this growth been more concentrated than in the disadvantaged--and primarily minority--neighborhoods of America's largest urban cities. In the most impoverished places, as much as 20% of the adult men are locked up on any given day, and there is hardly a family without a father, son, brother, or uncle who has not been behind bars.

While the effects of going to and returning home from prison are well-documented, little attention has been paid to the impact of removal on neighborhoods where large numbers of individuals have been imprisoned. In the first detailed, empirical exploration of the effects of mass incarceration on poor places, Imprisoning Communities demonstrates that in high doses incarceration contributes to the very social problems it is intended to solve: it breaks up family and social networks; deprives siblings, spouses, and parents of emotional and financial support; and threatens the economic and political infrastructure of already struggling neighborhoods. Especially at risk are children who, research shows, are more likely to commit a crime if a father or brother has been to prison. Clear makes the counterintuitive point that when incarceration concentrates at high levels, crime rates will go up. Removal, in other words, has exactly the opposite of its intended effect: it destabilizes the community, thus further reducing public safety.

Demonstrating that the current incarceration policy in urban America does more harm than good, from increasing crime to widening racial disparities and diminished life chances for youths, Todd Clear argues that we cannot overcome the problem of mass incarceration concentrated in poor places without incorporating an idea of community justice into our failing correctional and criminal justice systems.

The Politics of the Police (4th Edition)

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Oxford University Press
Abstract: 

The fourth edition of Politics of the Police has been completely revised and updated to take into account of recent changes in the law, policy, and organization of policing. 

From Clint Eastwood's Dirty Harry to Life on Mars, Robert Reiner explores the highly-charged debates that surround policing, including the various controversies and developments that have led to a change in the public's opinion of the police in recent years, and analyses the proposals for reform.

The book sets out to analyze how the police are perceived and the impact the mass media has on the public's perception and what we can expect in the future, given current research into police working practices and proposals for reform. 

An Introduction to Criminological Theory (4th Edition)

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to criminological theory for students taking courses in criminology at both undergraduate and postgraduate level.

Building on previous editions, which broadened the debate on criminological theory, this book presents the latest research and theoretical developments.

Terror, Insecurity and Liberty: Illiberal Practices of Liberal Regimes after 9/11

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Although recent debate surrounding civil rights and liberties in post-9/11 Europe has focused on the forms, provisions and legal consequences of security-led policies, this volume takes an inter-di

sciplinary approach to explore how these policies have come to generate illiberal practices. The book argues that policies implemented in the name of protection and national security have had a strong effect on civil liberties, human rights and social cohesion - in particular, but not only, since 9/11. The book undertakes detailed sociological enquiries concerning security agencies, and analyses public discourses on the definition of the terrorist threat. In doing so, it aims to show that the current reframing of civil rights and liberties is in part a result of the very functioning of both the political and the security fields, in that it is embedded in a broad array of domestic and transnational political, administrative and bureaucratic stakes.

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