Knowledgebase

Number of results: 27

News Frames and National Security - Covering Big Brother

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Cambridge University Press
Abstract: 

Did media coverage contribute to Americans' tendency to favor national security over civil liberties following the 9/11 attacks?

How did news framing of terrorist threats support the expanding surveillance state revealed by Edward Snowden? Douglas M. McLeod and Dhavan V. Shah explore the power of news coverage to render targeted groups suspicious and to spur support for government surveillance. They argue that the tendency of journalists to frame stories around individual targets of surveillance - personifying the domestic threat - shapes citizens' judgments about tolerance and participation, leading them to limit the civil liberties of a range of groups under scrutiny and to support 'Big Brother'.
 

Human and National Security - Understanding Transnational Changes

Document type: 
Book
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Deliberately challenging the traditional, state-centric analysis of security, this book focuses on subnational and transnational forces—religious and ethnic conflict, climate change, pandemic disea

ses, poverty, terrorism, criminal networks and cyber attacks—that threaten human beings and their communities across state borders. Examining threats related to human security in the modern era of globalization, Reveron and Mahoney-Norris argue that human security is national security today, even for great powers.

Big hover or big brother? Public attitudes about drone usage in domestic policing activities

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (4): 1027–1044
Abstract: 

Unmanned aerial systems (that is, UAS or drones) have been increasingly proposed and used by federal and state law enforcement agencies as an evolving technology for general surveillance, crime det

ection and criminal investigations. However, the use of UAS technology, in general, and within the particular context of domestic policing activities raises serious concerns about personal privacy and the greater intrusion of new forms of ‘big brother’ surveillance in people’s daily lives. On the basis of a national survey, the current study provides empirical evidence on public attitudes about UAS usage in various policing activities. Socio-demographic differences in the public support for drone usage in this context are also examined. Our general findings of context-specific variability in public support for UAS usage in policing operations are discussed in terms of their implications for developing public policy.

Jihadi Culture: The Art and Social Practices of Militant Islamists

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Cambridge University Press
Abstract: 

Al-Qaida and Islamic State continue to captivate the world with their extreme violence.

While much attention has been given to the operations and doctrines of jihadi groups, this is the first book to explore their culture. Using a wealth of primary sources, the authors examine what goes on inside these organizations and what daily life is like for the foot-soldiers. They show that Islamist militants have a rich aesthetic culture and do much more than fight and train. Life in a jihadi group is in fact filled with poetry and music, and fighters spend time on surprising things like dream interpretation and weeping. Readers will discover an entirely new perspective on radical Islamists: that despite their reputation as macho men, they value humility, artistic sensitivity, and displays of emotion. Cultural practices are essential for understanding the jihadi worldview and may shed important new light on decision-making and recruitment processes in extremist groups. This original book will interest anyone in academia, government, or the general public who is intrigued by the appeal and resilience of the jihadi movement.

Eurobarometer - Europeans' attitude towards Security

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Eurobarometer Special Survey 464b
Abstract: 

The aim of this report is to analyse the results of the questions asked regarding citizens’ overall awareness, experiences and perceptions of security.

The survey explores the issue of security by looking at a whole host of areas: overall perceptions of security and threats, perceptions of the actions taken by the police and other law enforcement authorities to combat those threats, and their attitudes toward national and international cooperation in dealing with the various security challenges faced by the Member States of the EU. 

Global Jihad and Foreign Fighters

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Small Wars & Insurgencies, 27 (5): 800-816
Abstract: 

One question that has been unresolved since the current phase of extremism began in the early- to mid-1990s has been whether or not there is a global structure to the jihadi phenomenon.

This paper argues that no such definable structure exists, although regional, national, and local networks may well share common objectives and ideological ambitions. There has, in short, been a process of global branding that has developed that, in structural terms, corresponds to a ‘network of networks’. These objectives and the related praxis, moreover, have evolved over the years, going through three distinct stages of development, encapsulated in the strategic distinctions between al-Qa’ida, Ansar al-Shar’ia, and the Islamic State (Da’ish). Allied to this is a second consideration; namely that the formal ideological inspiration and justification for extremist activities is a set of integrated common insights that form a coherent ideology derived from a literalist interpretation of Islam, Salafism. A further aspect of the Salafi–jihadi phenomenon is to what degree this formal ideology is the real explanation of the appeal of these movements to their adherents, particularly to the so-called ‘foreign fighters’ – those who volunteer from countries not directly implicated in the specific conflicts in which they participate. This paper will argue that the phenomenon is far more complex than the superficial appeal of jihadist ideology would suggest. Finally, the paper will attempt to sketch out what the underlying causes of the intense wave of extremism sweeping the Middle East and North Africa might be and to what extent ‘blow-back’ from returning jihadis should be of concern to home governments.

The European Council’s Guidelines for the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice 2020: Subverting the ‘Lisbonisation’ of Justice and Home Affairs?

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS - Centre for European Policy Studies
Abstract: 

In its Conclusions of 26-27 June 2014, the European Council has adopted the new “Strategic Guidelines for Legislative and Operational Planning for the coming years within the EU’s Area of Freedom,

Security and Justice (AFSJ)”. These Guidelines reveal a pre-Lisbon Treaty mindset among the EU member states and the Justice and Home Affairs Council. This essay argues that the Guidelines are mainly driven by the interests and agendas of national Ministries of Interior and Justice and are only “strategic” to the extent that they aim at first, re-injecting ‘intergovernmentalism’ or bringing back the old EU Third Pillar ways of working to the new EU institutional setting of the AFSJ and second, at sidelining the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and rule of law in the AFSJ. The paper argues that the European Council Guidelines seek to prevent the advances in Justice and Home Affairs cooperation as envisaged in the Treaty of Lisbon, particularly its emphasis on supranational democratic, legal and judicial accountability. As a consequence of this move to ‘de-Lisbonise’ JHA cooperation, fundamental rights and rule of law-related initiatives will be neglected and the interest of the individual will be displaced from the centre of gravity in the coming AFSJ 2020 policy agenda. 

The European Council’s Guidelines for the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice 2020: Subverting the ‘Lisbonisation’ of Justice and Home Affairs?

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS - Centre for European Policy Studies
Abstract: 

In its Conclusions of 26-27 June 2014, the European Council has adopted the new “Strategic Guidelines for Legislative and Operational Planning for the coming years within the EU’s Area of Freedom,

Security and Justice (AFSJ)”. These Guidelines reveal a pre-Lisbon Treaty mindset among the EU member states and the Justice and Home Affairs Council. This essay argues that the Guidelines are mainly driven by the interests and agendas of national Ministries of Interior and Justice and are only “strategic” to the extent that they aim at first, re-injecting ‘intergovernmentalism’ or bringing back the old EU Third Pillar ways of working to the new EU institutional setting of the AFSJ and second, at sidelining the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and rule of law in the AFSJ. The paper argues that the European Council Guidelines seek to prevent the advances in Justice and Home Affairs cooperation as envisaged in the Treaty of Lisbon, particularly its emphasis on supranational democratic, legal and judicial accountability. As a consequence of this move to ‘de-Lisbonise’ JHA cooperation, fundamental rights and rule of law-related initiatives will be neglected and the interest of the individual will be displaced from the centre of gravity in the coming AFSJ 2020 policy agenda. 

Review of Security Measures in the 7th Research Framework Programme FP7 2007-2013

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
European Parliament / LIBE Committee
Abstract: 

Upon request by the LIBE Committee, this study analyses how the public-private dialogue has been framed and shaped and examines the priorities set up in calls and projects that have received fundin

g from the European Commission under the security theme of the 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7 2007­ 2013). In particular, this study addresses two main questions: to what extent is security research placed at the service of citizens? To what extent does it contribute to the development of a single area of fundamental rights and freedoms? The study finds that security research has only partly addressed the concerns of EU citizens and that security research has been mainly put at the service of industry rather than society. 

The promise of security: resilience, surprise and epistemic politics

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Resilience: International Policies, Practices and Discourses, 2 (2): 73-87
Abstract: 

Over the past decade, resilience has become a quasi-universal answer to problems of security and governance, from climate change to children's education, from indigenous history to disaster respons

e, and from development to terrorism. This article places the proliferation of resilience in relation to the earlier proliferation of security discourse and practice. Why resilience today? It answers this question by unpacking the epistemic regimes that underpin the move to resilience. Rather than tracing the differences between protection, prevention, pre-emption and resilience, the article argues that the political transformation that resilience entails becomes explicit in relation to the promise of security. Although the language of ‘promise’ and ‘promising’ has been widely used in relation to security, its political implications have remained unexplored. Underpinned by an epistemology of surprising events, resilience discourses reconfigure the promise of security. Through an empirical engagement with the turn to resilience in DFID's humanitarian policy in the UK and a theoretical reconsideration of Hannah Arendt's conceptualisation of the promise, I offer a critical vantage point on the transformation that resilience portends for our contemporary condition.

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