Knowledgebase

Number of results: 33

The implementation of the EU arms export control system

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
Directorate-General for External Policies - Policy Department
Abstract: 

The aim of the workshop was to provide an overview of the EU arms export control system as well as options for improvement.

The main speaker, Dr Sibylle Bauer, Director of the Dual-Use and Arms Trade Control Programme at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), provided a brief overview of the main elements of the EU Common Position 2008/944/CFSP and then focused on aspects related to strengthening implementation of the eight criteria of the Common Position, the enhancement of compliance with the reporting obligation by Member States, possible ways to increase the transparency and public scrutiny of the export control framework and the development of the EU’s institutional framework in this context. Her presentation was followed by a debate involving members of the Security and Defence Committee of the European Parliament, the outcome of which may feed into the EP Annual Report on Arms Export.

Does the new EU Global Strategy deliver on security and defence?

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Directorate-General for External Policies - Policy Department
Abstract: 

The Global Strategy for the EU’s Foreign and Security Policy presented by High Representative Federica Mogherini on 28 June 2016 setsout a ‘Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe’, in resp

onse to the Member States’ request for a new framework in which the EU can tackle the challenges and key changes to the EU’s environment identified in a strategic assessment carried out in 2015. Many expectations were raised ahead of its publication but itsoon became clear that defence would be a central element of the Global Strategy. A number of defence priorities emerged from the exchanges between the main stakeholders: a central role for the common security and defence policy (CSDP); a clear level of ambition with tools to match; emphasis on EU-NATO cooperation; and concrete follow-up measures such as a ‘White Book’ on European defence. Seen in this light,the Global Strategy captures the urgent need to face the challenges of today’s environment and it may prove to be a major turning point in EU foreign policy and security thinking. It emphasizes the value of hard power — including via a strong partnership with NATO — along with soft power. It will not be easy for the Member States to match the level of ambition set in the Global Strategy and its success will be judged in terms of the follow-up and the measures taken to implement it. Could the first step be a White Book on European Defence?

 

European Defence Action Plan - COM (2016) 950

Document type: 
Policy document
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Commission Communication - COM (2016) 950
Abstract: 

On 30 November 2016 the Commission presented the European defence action plan (EDAP).

The plan proposes a European Defence Fund and other actions to support Member States (MS) in more efficient spending in joint defence. Announced in the 2016 Commission work programme, the EDAP follows up on the communication 'Towards a more competitive and efficient defence and security sector'  of July 2013, as well as on the conclusions of the European Council of December 2013. 

EU Emergency Response Policies and NGOs

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Springer
Abstract: 

This book analyses trends and changes in the European Union’s (EU) humanitarian aid policy, by focusing on the performance of Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs).

NGOs have developed strong relationships with international institutions but have also maintained direct interaction with EU member states. The result is a multi-layered process in which national interests, common values, universal principles and global duties meet and interact. By combining a deepening of the theoretical debate with the use of empirical data on the funding of NGO projects by EU institutions and member states, the book significantly furthers our understanding of the complex relationship between these actors. It will appeal to students and scholars interested in EU politics, global security, and international aid, as well as practitioners in the humanitarian field. 

EU Security Strategies - Extending the EU System of Security Governance

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

This volume offers a coherent analysis of the European Union’s security strategies within a comparative framework. If the EU is to survive and prosper as an effective security actor, it requir

es that greater attention be devoted to taking a cohesive and common position on the relationship between EU foreign policy means and goals. The major claim of this edited collection is that there is a European grand security strategy that disciplines member state security strategies. That grand strategy has two distinct substantive goals: (1) the preservation and expansion of the EU system of security governance; and (2) the implementation of specific strategies to meet internal and external threats and sources of insecurity. The EU has sought to develop a grand security strategy that not only accounts for the proliferation of threats possessing a military or non-military character and differentiates between core and peripheral regions of interest, but also addresses the requirements to bridge the increasingly blurred boundary between internal and external security threats and the necessary reconciliation of the competing security preferences of its member states. The empirical contributions to this volume examine the EU security strategies for specific issue areas and regional threat complexes. These case studies assess whether and how those strategies have consolidated or expanded the EU system of security governance, as well as their successes and limitations in meeting the security threats confronting the EU and its member-states.

UN Human Security Handbook

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security
Abstract: 

Prepared as a guide for practitioners and policymakers who plan to integrate the human security approach into their work, this handbook provides an overview of the principles that embody the approa

ch and its added value. It introduces a step-by-step analytical process for the design and implementation of human security initiatives, and provides guidance for assessing the added value of the approach.  A detailed case study from the Turkana region of Kenya demonstrates the application of human security tools to analyse a complex situation and develop an integrated multisectoral approach. This is followed with additional examples of programmes supported under the United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security (UNTFHS).

Internal and External Aspects of Security

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Security, 15 (4): 385-404
Abstract: 

This contribution analyses the merging of internal and external aspects of security.

Whereas according to the ‘doxa’ emerging after 11 September 2001, such convergence is the logical and necessary answer to global terrorism, this article argues instead that the de-differentiation between internal and external security does not result from the transformation of political violence, but mainly from institutional games and practices of securitisation that define the importance of security as superior to sovereignty and freedom. A web of security institutions has developed beyond national borders, and policing at a distance has disentangled security from state sovereignty. The question of who is in charge of security is now tackled at the transnational level, generating competition among professionals of politics and (in)security over the existence of threats and legitimate answers to them. Moreover, the role of technology, especially concerning information exchange, has reinforced the importance of security professionals. The impact of Europeanisation has been central as it has formalised transnational ties between security professionals, and the emergence of European institutions in charge of fundamental rights and data protection may provide a space to discuss collectively who is entitled to define what constitutes a threat.

Hydro-climatic change, conflict and security

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Climatic Change, 123 (1): 69-82
Abstract: 

Climate change is likely to increase the frequency and intensity of water-related hazards on human populations. This has generated security concerns and calls for urgent policy action.

However, the simplified narrative that links climate change to security via water and violent conflict is wanting. First, it is not confirmed by empirical evidence. Second, it ignores the varied character and implications of hydro-climatic hazards, the multi-faceted nature of conflict and adaptive action, and crucial intricacies of security. Integrating for the first time research and findings from diverse disciplines, we provide a more nuanced picture of the climate-water-security nexus. We consider findings from the transboundary waters, armed conflict, vulnerability, and political ecology literatures and specify the implications and priorities for policy relevant research. Although the social effects of future hydro-climatic change cannot be safely predicted, there is a good understanding of the factors that aggravate risks to social wellbeing. To reduce vulnerability, pertinent democratic and social/civil security institutions should be strengthened where they exist, and promoted where they are still absent.

Climate, conflict, and social stability: what does the evidence say?

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Climatic Change, 123 (1): 39-55
Abstract: 

Are violent conflict and socio-political stability associated with changes in climatological variables?

We examine 50 rigorous quantitative studies on this question and find consistent support for a causal association between climatological changes and various conflict outcomes, at spatial scales ranging from individual buildings to the entire globe and at temporal scales ranging from an anomalous hour to an anomalous millennium. Multiple mechanisms that could explain this association have been proposed and are sometimes supported by findings, but the literature is currently unable to decisively exclude any proposed pathway. Several mechanisms likely contribute to the outcomes that we observe.

Climate and security: evidence, emerging risks, and a new agenda

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Climatic Change, 123 (1): 1-9
Abstract: 

There are diverse linkages between climate change and security including risks of conflict, national security concerns, critical national infrastructure, geo-political rivalries and threats to huma

n security. We review analysis of these domains from primary research and from policy prescriptive and advocacy sources. We conclude that much analysis over-emphasises deterministic mechanisms between climate change and security. Yet the climate-security nexus is more complex than it appears and requires attention from across the social sciences. We review the robustness of present social sciences analysis in assessing the causes and consequences of climate change on human security, and identify new areas of research. These new areas include the need to analyse the absence of conflict in the face of climate risks and the need to expand the range of issues accounted for in analysis of climate and security including the impacts of mitigation response on domains of security. We argue for the necessity of robust theories that explain causality and associations, and the need to include theories of asymmetric power relations in explaining security dimensions. We also highlight the dilemmas of how observations and historical analysis of climate and security dimensions may be limited as the climate changes in ways that present regions with unprecedented climate risks.

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