Knowledgebase

Number of results: 40

Directive (EU) 2017/541 on combating terrorism

Document type: 
Legislation
Publisher / Publication: 
Official Journal of the European Union
Abstract: 

Directive (EU) 2017/541 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2017 on combating terrorism and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA and amending Council Decision 200

5/671/JHA

The European Union’s Policies on Counter-Terrorism Relevance: Coherence and Effectiveness

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
Directorate-General for Internal Policies - POLICY DEPARTMENT C: CITIZENS' RIGHTS AND CONSTITUTIONAL AFFAIRS
Abstract: 

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, identifies (counter-) terrorism trends,

threats and policies in the EU, focussing particularly on seven themes, including database access and interoperability, measures on border security, criminal justice and prevention of radicalisation. It also analyses the coherence and effectiveness of the counter-terrorism policy (architecture), and issues of cooperation, oversight and implementation, in particular of seven focus Member States: Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Slovakia and Spain. Moreover, this study addresses future scenarios and formulates concrete policy options and recommendations.

EU and Member States’ policies and laws on persons suspected of terrorism-related crimes

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
Directorate-General for Internal Policies - POLICY DEPARTMENT C: CITIZENS’ RIGHTS AND CONSTITUTIONAL AFFAIRS
Abstract: 

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justi

ce and Home Affairs (LIBE Committee), presents an overview of the legal and policy framework in the EU and 10 select EU Member States on persons suspected of terrorism-related crimes. The study analyses how Member States define suspects of terrorismrelated crimes, what measures are available to state authorities to prevent and investigate such crimes and how information on suspects of terrorism-related crimes is exchanged between Member States. The comparative analysis between the 10 Member States subject to this study, in combination with the examination of relevant EU policy and legislation, leads to the development of key conclusions and recommendations. 

The Humanitarian Politics of European Border Policing: Frontex and Border Police in Evros

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Political Sociology, Vol 9, No. 1: 53–69
Abstract: 

This paper explores humanitarianism in the practice of Frontex-assisted Greek border police in Evros and of Frontex at their headquarters in Warsaw.

Building on the increase in humanitarian justifications for border policing practices as well as the charges of a lack of humanity, the paper analyzes the relations between humanitarian responses and border policing where humanitarianism is used for framing and giving meaning to institutional and operational practices. In offering an interpretive view of border policing undertaken by people in their working lives across sites and scales, it builds on the critical literature addressing the multifaceted nature of border control in Europe today. At the same time, it speaks to wider debates about the double-sided nature of humanitarian governance concerned with care and control. It argues that while humanitarian motivations have implications for operations in the field and help to frame “good practice” at the policy level, humanitarianism should not be seen as additional or paradoxical to wider border policing operations within forms of governance developed to address the problems of population. Conflict arises in the paradox of protection between the subject of humanitarianism and policing, the population, and the object of border control, the territorially bounded state or regional unit.

 

Security Union - A Europe that protects

Document type: 
Policy document
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Commission
Abstract: 

In this Factsheet, the European Commission outlines the state of play regarding legislative initiatives aimed at the completion of the Security Union

EU Security Strategies - Extending the EU System of Security Governance

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

This volume offers a coherent analysis of the European Union’s security strategies within a comparative framework. If the EU is to survive and prosper as an effective security actor, it requir

es that greater attention be devoted to taking a cohesive and common position on the relationship between EU foreign policy means and goals. The major claim of this edited collection is that there is a European grand security strategy that disciplines member state security strategies. That grand strategy has two distinct substantive goals: (1) the preservation and expansion of the EU system of security governance; and (2) the implementation of specific strategies to meet internal and external threats and sources of insecurity. The EU has sought to develop a grand security strategy that not only accounts for the proliferation of threats possessing a military or non-military character and differentiates between core and peripheral regions of interest, but also addresses the requirements to bridge the increasingly blurred boundary between internal and external security threats and the necessary reconciliation of the competing security preferences of its member states. The empirical contributions to this volume examine the EU security strategies for specific issue areas and regional threat complexes. These case studies assess whether and how those strategies have consolidated or expanded the EU system of security governance, as well as their successes and limitations in meeting the security threats confronting the EU and its member-states.

European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (Te-Sat) 2017

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
EUROPOL
Abstract: 

Europol’s annual EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) provides an overview of the terrorism phenomenon in the EU in a given year. The fight against terrorism is a top pri

ority for the EU and for Europol, and that means that TE-SAT is one of Europol’s most significant pieces of strategic analysis. It offers law enforcement officials, policymakers and the general public facts and figures on terrorism in the EU, while also identifying developing trends in this crime area, based on information that Member States make available to Europol. The report, which Europol has produced each year since 2007, charts the established and evolving drivers of terrorism. These drivers can change or vanish over time in response to political or socio-economic developments, merge with other ideologies or convictions and be the building blocks of new and sometimes very specific and highly individual motivations. The TE-SAT is prepared by experts at Europol and is based on information provided and verified by EU Member States and by Europol’s partners. It also relies on quantitative and qualitative data that Eurojust and the Member States provide.

EU and NATO cybersecurity strategies and national cyber security strategies: a comparative analysis

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Journal, 30 (4): 1151–1168
Abstract: 

Given the global nature of cyber threats, assurance of a cyber security policy is very important not only at organization level but also at national level.

Currently, cyber security as such is not independently regulated internationally; therefore the role of the EU and NATO in ensuring cyber security has become particularly significant. This article presents a study which compares the cyber security policies of the EU and NATO organizations. An analysis of how national cyber security strategies correspond with the cyber security policies and the strategic directions of these organizations has been carried out. We have also carried out a comparative study of the provision of national cyber security strategies of the EU and NATO. The study reveals that regardless of similar goals, namely assurance of cyber resilience, the selected harmonization and coordination approaches, as well as norms of national cybersecurity strategies, differ.

Juggling the Balance between Preventive Security and Human Rights in Europe

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Security and Human Rights, 26 (2-4): 126-146
Abstract: 

Within the European Union (EU), security issues are increasingly framed as risks and threats that can be controlled by preventive measures.

The EU has established several agencies, legal instruments and databases to facilitate the prevention of crime, terrorism and irregular migration. This article takes stock of the way in which the EU seeks to balance the preventive security logic with its own human rights framework. While human rights can jointly be considered an evolving normative framework in the EU, there is a need to identify which human rights are at risk and how (non-) compliance ought to be monitored.The article states some concerns about equal access to human rights as well as the lack of a strong general oversight mechanism. Continued structural attention should be given to ex ante human-rights impact assessments and there needs to be more emphasis on regular external evaluations of human rights compliance ex post facto. In relation to the external action of the EU, the EU must practice what it preaches and needs to reflect critically on the necessity and proportionality of precautionary security measures.

EU border security and migration into the European Union: FRONTEX and securitisation through practices

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
European Security, 19 (2): 231-254
Abstract: 

This article examines the contribution of the activities of FRONTEX, the Agency in charge of managing operational cooperation at the external borders of the European Union (EU), to the securitisati

on of asylum and migration in the EU. It does so by applying a sociological approach to the study of securitisation processes, which, it argues, is particularly well-suited to the study of securitisation processes in the EU. Such an approach privileges the study of securitising practices over securitising ‘speech acts’ in securitisation processes. After identifying two main types of securitising practices in general, the article systematically examines the activities of FRONTEX and the extent to which they can be seen as securitising practices on the basis of these two (non-mutually exclusive) criteria. The article shows that all the main activities of FRONTEX can be considered to be securitising practices. The article therefore concludes that the activities of FRONTEX contribute to a significant extent to the ongoing securitisation of asylum and migration in the EU. It also highlights that this does not automatically make FRONTEX a significant securitising actor in its own right and that more research is needed on the relations between FRONTEX and the EU institutions, especially in the light of the current negotiations aiming to amend the founding Regulation of FRONTEX.

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