Knowledgebase

Number of results: 153

The European Integrated Border Management Concept- SOURCE legal card

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The integration of border management at the European level is expressly foreseen in EU primary law.

 Article 77(2)(d) of the TFEU includes the progressive introduction of a European IBM system among the goals to be achieved by the EU policies on borders checks, asylum and migration

The European Integrated Border Management (EIBM) concept constitutes a part of the strategy that the EU has progressively elaborated “to compensate” for the abolition of internal borders within the Schengen areais. This concept is based on the assumption that strengthened operational and technical cooperation at the EU external borders is necessary for both facilitating the legitimate movement of goods and persons and for the detection, prevention and reduction of irregular migration and cross-border crime

The implementation and future development of the European IBM concept falls under the “shared responsibility or competences” between EU and Member States’ actors. It must go hand-to-hand with Lisbon Treaty standards, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, and EU secondary (Schengen-related) legislation – and in particular the SBC

 

SOURCE Legal Card – Internal Border Controls in the Schengen Area

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The Schengen Borders Code (Regulation (EU) 2016/399) provides the legal framework for a common approach within the Schengen area for internal and external border controls.

The guiding principles of the Schengen Borders Code (SBC) are the absence of internal border controls and common rules on external border controls (Art. 1 SBC).

As of December 2018, 22 of the 28 EU Member States, excl. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the UK, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, participate in the Schengen Area.

The absence of internal border controls espoused in the SBC entails that all persons may travel freely within the Schengen area without being subjected to border checks (Art. 22 SBC). Member States remain entitled to police checks (as long as they do not have an equivalent effect to border checks), security controls at sea- and airports, and checks relating to the legal obligation to carry a valid papers and document (Art. 23 SBC).

Under exceptional circumstances, the Schengen Borders Code provides for the possibility to temporarily reintroduce controls at the internal borders (Artt. 25-35 SBC). Internal border controls may be temporarily reintroduced only as a last resort (Art. 25(2) SBC), must comply with the criteria for their temporary reintroduction (in accordance with Artt. 26 and 30 SBC), and must follow the proper procedure and limitations (under Artt. 27-29 SBC).
 

The European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS)

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The concept of travel authorisations, as easier and smoother procedures than visas, was developed in parallel of progress made on electronic visas, which application is entirely done online.

It was first put in place in Australia in 1996 with the Electronic Travel Authorisation System and broadened to all EU citizens in 2008 through the eVisitor system. While Australia applies a universal visa regime, and the eVisitor form has the legal form of a visa, other countries started developing travel authorisations as an alternative to pre-vet visa free visitors.

The European Entry Exit System (EES)

Document type: 
Legal Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

The idea of developing a European Entry and Exit System dates back to February 2013 with a first proposal published by the European Commission on a “Smart Borders Package” to better manage increase

d traveller flows and efficiently respond to security concerns. It was composed of 1) an Entry-Exit System (EES) to replace the passport stamping and have a record of overstays, 2) a Registered Traveller Programme (RTP) for frequent travellers to benefit from a pre-screening procedure and be able to use Automated Border Control (ABC) gates like EU citizens and 3) amendments to the Schengen Borders Code to integrate the above-mentioned changes

All 25 technology trend cards

Document type: 
SOURCE publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

An overview of twenty five technoclogies and their trends as relevant to societal security

5G - Next Generation Mobile Network, Agent-based Modelling, Augmented Reality Systems, Automated human behavior analysis, Biometric Recognition Technologies, Bioremediation, Blockchain, CRISPR/Cas, Earthquake Prediction, Emergency Management Information Systems, European Maritime Surveillance Systems, Homomorphic Encryption, Indoor Navigation, Internet of Things Security, Machine Learning for Security Applications, Nano Air Vehicles, Non-lethal electromagnetic weapons for crowd control, Post-Quantum Cryptography, Predictive Policing, Quantum Cryptography, Serious Games, Smart Grid, Swarm Robotics, Through-the-Wall Sensing, Whole Body Scanner, 

 

Machine Learning for Security Applications

Document type: 
Technology Trend card
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Fraunhofer for the SOURCE project
Abstract: 

1 page sheet on the technology trends of Machine Learning for Security Applications. Machine learning (ML) is a subtopic of artificial intelligence (AI).

It is concerned with techniques that enable computers to automatically learn certain tasks from data, e.g. to recognize faces in images.

The implementation of the EU arms export control system

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
Directorate-General for External Policies - Policy Department
Abstract: 

The aim of the workshop was to provide an overview of the EU arms export control system as well as options for improvement.

The main speaker, Dr Sibylle Bauer, Director of the Dual-Use and Arms Trade Control Programme at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), provided a brief overview of the main elements of the EU Common Position 2008/944/CFSP and then focused on aspects related to strengthening implementation of the eight criteria of the Common Position, the enhancement of compliance with the reporting obligation by Member States, possible ways to increase the transparency and public scrutiny of the export control framework and the development of the EU’s institutional framework in this context. Her presentation was followed by a debate involving members of the Security and Defence Committee of the European Parliament, the outcome of which may feed into the EP Annual Report on Arms Export.

The Humanitarian Politics of European Border Policing: Frontex and Border Police in Evros

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Political Sociology, Vol 9, No. 1: 53–69
Abstract: 

This paper explores humanitarianism in the practice of Frontex-assisted Greek border police in Evros and of Frontex at their headquarters in Warsaw.

Building on the increase in humanitarian justifications for border policing practices as well as the charges of a lack of humanity, the paper analyzes the relations between humanitarian responses and border policing where humanitarianism is used for framing and giving meaning to institutional and operational practices. In offering an interpretive view of border policing undertaken by people in their working lives across sites and scales, it builds on the critical literature addressing the multifaceted nature of border control in Europe today. At the same time, it speaks to wider debates about the double-sided nature of humanitarian governance concerned with care and control. It argues that while humanitarian motivations have implications for operations in the field and help to frame “good practice” at the policy level, humanitarianism should not be seen as additional or paradoxical to wider border policing operations within forms of governance developed to address the problems of population. Conflict arises in the paradox of protection between the subject of humanitarianism and policing, the population, and the object of border control, the territorially bounded state or regional unit.

 

Advanced social engineering attacks

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
Journal of Information Security and Applications, Vol. 22: 113-122
Abstract: 

Social engineering has emerged as a serious threat in virtual communities and is an effective means to attack information systems.

The services used by today's knowledge workers prepare the ground for sophisticated social engineering attacks. The growing trend towards BYOD (bring your own device) policies and the use of online communication and collaboration tools in private and business environments aggravate the problem. In globally acting companies, teams are no longer geographically co-located, but staffed just-in-time. The decrease in personal interaction combined with a plethora of tools used for communication (e-mail, IM, Skype, Dropbox, LinkedIn, Lync, etc.) create new attack vectors for social engineering attacks. Recent attacks on companies such as the New York Times and RSA have shown that targeted spear-phishing attacks are an effective, evolutionary step of social engineering attacks. Combined with zero-day-exploits, they become a dangerous weapon that is often used by advanced persistent threats. This paper provides a taxonomy of well-known social engineering attacks as well as a comprehensive overview of advanced social engineering attacks on the knowledge worker.

 

Improving the Involvement of Digital Volunteers in Disaster Management

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
International Conference on Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction ITDRR 2016: Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction pp 214-224
Abstract: 

Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has been seen as useful information in times of disasters.

Several authors have shown that VGI is useful for coping with preparedness and response phases of disaster management. However, because it is still a young technology, the use of VGI remains uncertain, due to its lack of strong reliability and validity. It is our assumption that to improve reliability and validity the promotion of citizen engagement (CE) is needed. CE is not new topic, but in the digital humanitarian context, it involves important factors that are not yet considered by disaster managers, such as communication processes, motivation of volunteers, different media for production of information, etc. To fill this gap, we identified a set of preliminary factors which should be considered to promote the involvement of volunteers in disaster management. These factors were derived from critical review of CE literature and from an analysis of lessons learned from an experiment on interaction with citizens carried out in context of the EU-project “DRIVER – Driving Innovation in Crisis Management for European Resilience”.

 

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