Knowledgebase

Number of results: 8

Terror, Insecurity and Liberty: Illiberal Practices of Liberal Regimes after 9/11

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

Although recent debate surrounding civil rights and liberties in post-9/11 Europe has focused on the forms, provisions and legal consequences of security-led policies, this volume takes an inter-di

sciplinary approach to explore how these policies have come to generate illiberal practices. The book argues that policies implemented in the name of protection and national security have had a strong effect on civil liberties, human rights and social cohesion - in particular, but not only, since 9/11. The book undertakes detailed sociological enquiries concerning security agencies, and analyses public discourses on the definition of the terrorist threat. In doing so, it aims to show that the current reframing of civil rights and liberties is in part a result of the very functioning of both the political and the security fields, in that it is embedded in a broad array of domestic and transnational political, administrative and bureaucratic stakes.

The Challenge Project: Final Recommendations on the Changing Landscape of European Liberty and Security

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
CEPS CHALLENGE Programme (Changing Landscape of European Liberty and Security)
Abstract: 

This paper presents the final policy recommendations coming out of the CHALLENGE project on the Changing Landscape of European Liberty and Security.

It aims to provide a synthesis of the main policy-relevant inputs that have been presented during the five-year research project and at the same time, refining them in light of the Stockholm programme to be adopted at the conclusion of the Swedish Presidency of the EU in December. The paper first offers a synthesised overview of the most relevant policy contributions achieved by the CHALLENGE project and then moves into an overview of the specific recommendations organised by policy theme. A final section reviews those recommendations that can be considered to be more ‘general’ or ‘horizontal’ in character and that are particularly targeted towards the development of new strategies for the implementation of innovative evaluation mechanisms. 

Europe's 21st Century Challenge: Delivering Liberty

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

This volume presents the final results of the CHALLENGE research project (The Changing Landscape of European Liberty and Security) - a five-year project funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of D

G Research of the European Commission. The book critically appraises the liberties of citizens and others within the EU, and the different ways in which they are affected by the proliferation of discourses, practices and norms of insecurity enacted in the name of collective and individual safety. It analyses from an interdisciplinary perspective the impacts of new techniques of surveillance and control on the liberty and security of the citizen. The book studies illiberal practices of liberal regimes in the field of security, and the relationship between the internal and external effects of these practices in an increasingly interconnected world, as well as the effects in relation to the place of the EU in world politics.

Security - Analysing transnational professionals of (in)security in Europe

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Didier Bigo
Publisher / Publication: 
Chapter in: Rebecca Adler-Niessen (ed.), Bourdieu in International Relations - Rethinking Key Concepts in IR, Routledge, pp. 114-130
Abstract: 

This chapter tries to sum up why the problematisation suggested by Pierre Bourdieu in terms of practice instead of norms and values or interest and rational choice, of relational approach instead o

f essentialism or interactionism, permits rethinking security differently. It is crucial to understand agents' practices concerning (in)security as forms of strategies of distinction instead of rational calculus, of field and habitus instead of structure and agency, of trajectories and change instead of stability and (dis)order, of field of power, field of national state and field of professionals of politics, law, security instead of a vision in terms of state-society and interstate actors. 

Review of Security Measures in the 7th Research Framework Programme FP7 2007-2013

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
European Parliament / LIBE Committee
Abstract: 

Upon request by the LIBE Committee, this study analyses how the public-private dialogue has been framed and shaped and examines the priorities set up in calls and projects that have received fundin

g from the European Commission under the security theme of the 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7 2007­ 2013). In particular, this study addresses two main questions: to what extent is security research placed at the service of citizens? To what extent does it contribute to the development of a single area of fundamental rights and freedoms? The study finds that security research has only partly addressed the concerns of EU citizens and that security research has been mainly put at the service of industry rather than society. 

National Programmes for Mass Surveillance of Personal Data in EU Member States and their Compatibility wit EU Law

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
European Parliament / LIBE Committee
Abstract: 

In the wake of the disclosures surrounding PRISM and other US surveillance programmes, this study makes an assessment of the large-scale surveillance practices by a selection of EU member states: t

he UK, Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands. Given the large-scale nature of surveillance practices at stake, which represent a reconfiguration of traditional intelligence gathering, the study contends that an analysis of European surveillance programmes cannot be reduced to a question of balance between data protection versus national security, but has to be framed in terms of collective freedoms and democracy. It finds that four of the five EU member states selected for in-depth examination are engaging in some form of large-scale interception and surveillance of communication data, and identifies parallels and discrepancies between these programmes and the NSA-run operations. The study argues that these surveillance programmes do not stand outside the realm of EU intervention but can be engaged from an EU law perspective via (i) an understanding of national security in a democratic rule of law framework where fundamental human rights standards and judicial oversight constitute key standards; (ii) the risks presented to the internal security of the Union as a whole as well as the privacy of EU citizens as data owners, and (iii) the potential spillover into the activities and responsibilities of EU agencies. The study then presents a set of policy recommendations to the European Parliament. 

After Snowden: Rethinking the Impact of Surveillance

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Publisher / Publication: 
International Political Sociology, 8 (2): 121-144
Abstract: 

Current revelations about the secret US-NSA program, PRISM, have confirmed the large-scale mass surveillance of the telecommunication and electronic messages of governments, companies, and citizens

, including the United States' closest allies in Europe and Latin America. The transnational ramifications of surveillance call for a re-evaluation of contemporary world politics' practices. The debate cannot be limited to the United States versus the rest of the world or to surveillance versus privacy; much more is at stake. This collective article briefly describes the specificities of cyber mass surveillance, including its mix of the practices of intelligence services and those of private companies providing services around the world. It then investigates the impact of these practices on national security, diplomacy, human rights, democracy, subjectivity, and obedience.

The (in)securitization practices of the three universes of EU border control: Military/Navy – border guards/police – database analysts

Document type: 
Scientific publication
Authors / Institution: 
Didier Bigo
Publisher / Publication: 
Security Dialogue, 45 (3): 209-225
Abstract: 

What practices of (in)securitization involve the notions of border and border control in the European Union? How do these practices operate? How are they assembled?

In the resulting assemblage, is the notion of borders – understood as state borders – still relevant for the control of individuals and populations moving across the frontiers of the EU? Drawing on empirical observations and with a specific focus on how border control is translated into different social universes, this article seeks to show that practices of control are routinely embedded in a practical sense that informs what controlling borders does and means. This practical sense is itself informed by different professional habitus and work routines involving deterrence and the use of force, interrogation and detention, surveillance of populations on the move and the profiling of (un)trusted travellers. Its strength varies in relation to its shared dimension by most of the operators, and is adjusted to the materiality of borders as well as to the local contexts in which it is deployed. It activates, or does not activate, the maximal use of various control technologies (satellites, pre-registration and interoperable exchange of data between the state and private bureaucracies, biometrics identifiers, body-scanners). For understanding practices of (in)securitization, actual work routines and the specific professional ‘dispositions’ are therefore more important than any discourses actors may use to justify their activities.

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