Knowledgebase

Number of results: 161

Europeans' attitude towards Cyber Security

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Special Eurobarometer 464a
Abstract: 

The aim of this survey is to understand EU citizens’ awareness, experiences and perceptions of cyber security issues. The report focuses on cyber security itself.

First, it identifies patterns and trends in the frequency of Internet use, the means by which respondents access the Internet, and the kinds of activities that the Internet is commonly used for. Second, it examines the concerns of respondents about the security of Internet transactions, and the impact these concerns are having on respondents’ behaviour. Third, it analyses respondents’ awareness and experiences of cybercrime, looking at the extent to which people are concerned about being the victims of cybercrime and the extent to which they have already experienced this. 

Living Conditions in Europe - 2014 Edition

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
EUROSTAT Statistical Books
Abstract: 

This publication provides a picture of current living conditions in Europe, as well as the socio-economic factors a ecting the every- day life of Europeans.

Chapter 1 focuses on the nancial dimensions of poverty and inequality. Chapter 2 examines to what extent lack of adequate income can prevent people from a ording an adequate standard of living. Chapter 3 presents statistics with regard to housing quality, while, under Chapter 4, the interactions between living conditions and socio-economic factors, such as labour and health status, are examined. Finally, in Chapter 5, aspects of child pov- erty and social exclusion are presented. e majority of the indicators come from EU-SILC, with data up to 2012. 

Imprisoning Communities - How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Oxford University Press Canada
Abstract: 

At no time in history, and certainly in no other democratic society, have prisons been filled so quickly and to such capacity than in the United States.

And nowhere has this growth been more concentrated than in the disadvantaged--and primarily minority--neighborhoods of America's largest urban cities. In the most impoverished places, as much as 20% of the adult men are locked up on any given day, and there is hardly a family without a father, son, brother, or uncle who has not been behind bars.

While the effects of going to and returning home from prison are well-documented, little attention has been paid to the impact of removal on neighborhoods where large numbers of individuals have been imprisoned. In the first detailed, empirical exploration of the effects of mass incarceration on poor places, Imprisoning Communities demonstrates that in high doses incarceration contributes to the very social problems it is intended to solve: it breaks up family and social networks; deprives siblings, spouses, and parents of emotional and financial support; and threatens the economic and political infrastructure of already struggling neighborhoods. Especially at risk are children who, research shows, are more likely to commit a crime if a father or brother has been to prison. Clear makes the counterintuitive point that when incarceration concentrates at high levels, crime rates will go up. Removal, in other words, has exactly the opposite of its intended effect: it destabilizes the community, thus further reducing public safety.

Demonstrating that the current incarceration policy in urban America does more harm than good, from increasing crime to widening racial disparities and diminished life chances for youths, Todd Clear argues that we cannot overcome the problem of mass incarceration concentrated in poor places without incorporating an idea of community justice into our failing correctional and criminal justice systems.

Policing Problem Places - Crime Hot Spots and Effective Prevention

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Oxford University Press
Abstract: 

In Policing Problem Places, Anthony Braga and David Weisburd demonstrate that hot spots policing is a powerful and cost-effective approach to crime prevention.

While putting police officers where crime happens most is an old and well-established idea, in practice it is often avoided or not properly implemented. Braga and Weisburd draw on rigorous scientific evidence to show how police officers should use problem-oriented policing and situational crime-prevention techniques to address the place dynamics, situations, and characteristics that cause a spot to be "hot." But the benefits of hot spots policing do not end with conserving public dollars and police resources. Illustrating how policing problem places can benefit police-community relations, especially in minority neighborhoods where residents have long suffered from high crime and poor police service, Braga and Weisburd show how police can make efforts to develop positive and collaborative relationships with residents and avoid the indiscriminant enforcement tactics that undermine the legitimacy of the police. 

Police Innovation - Contrasting Perspectives

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Cambridge University Press
Abstract: 

Over the last three decades American policing has gone through a period of significant change and innovation.

In what is a relatively short historical time frame the police began to reconsider their fundamental mission, the nature of the core strategies of policing, and the character of their relationships with the communities that they serve. This volume brings together leading police scholars to examine eight major innovations which emerged during this period. Including advocates and critics of the innovations, this comprehensive book assesses the impacts of police innovation on crime and public safety.

The Politics of the Police (4th Edition)

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Oxford University Press
Abstract: 

The fourth edition of Politics of the Police has been completely revised and updated to take into account of recent changes in the law, policy, and organization of policing. 

From Clint Eastwood's Dirty Harry to Life on Mars, Robert Reiner explores the highly-charged debates that surround policing, including the various controversies and developments that have led to a change in the public's opinion of the police in recent years, and analyses the proposals for reform.

The book sets out to analyze how the police are perceived and the impact the mass media has on the public's perception and what we can expect in the future, given current research into police working practices and proposals for reform. 

An Introduction to Criminological Theory (4th Edition)

Document type: 
Book
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Routledge
Abstract: 

This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to criminological theory for students taking courses in criminology at both undergraduate and postgraduate level.

Building on previous editions, which broadened the debate on criminological theory, this book presents the latest research and theoretical developments.

A case study of C2 Agility in the 2014 Västmanland forest fire

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI)
Abstract: 

This report presents a study where a case study template developed by the research group NATO STO SAS-085 is used to analyze an emergency response operation in order to identify and collect evidenc

e concerning the occurrence of agility and command and control (C2) agility. The firefighting operation during the 2014 Västmanland forest fire is used as a case as it involved a multitude of organizations responding to a forest fire that evolved in a rapid and complex during rather extreme weather conditions in the Swedish context. This situation presented a challenge in terms of C2. The analysis suggests that the unusual and challenging conditions of the forest fire prevented the involved organizations to reach the appropriate C2 approach during the initial phases of the firefighting operation. The analysis also highlights the need to be prepared for response operations that are not commonly encountered. This in turn demands the ability to scale up and create or activate C2 support functions in order to achieve appropriate C2. Common operational picture (COP) is an essential component if such ability is to be demonstrated, something that was found insufficient or missing in the studied firefighting operation. At the same time, it cannot be ruled out whether the outcome of the firefighting operation would have been different if actions had been put in place in line with the agility and C2 agility concepts. Using the case study template proved to be challenging when applying it on data (reports and documents) collected for other purposes than investigating C2 and C2 agility. Above all, it is the difficulty in discriminating interesting facts from interesting details, and the difficulty of applying the concepts of agility and C2 agility. Applying the concepts of C2 agility can thus be seen as somewhat unjust as such a concept has never been used or applied in the Swedish context. On the other hand, viewing the handling of the firefighting operation during the forest fire in terms of agility and C2 agility has been helpful as it has highlighted some limitations of the current approach to large scale firefighting operations.

Evaluation of the cooperation to prevent social unrest in the Järva area

Document type: 
Report
Authors / Institution: 
Publisher / Publication: 
Polismyndigheten i Stockholms län (the Stockholm County Police Authority)
Abstract: 

This report consists of an evaluation of the cooperation in the Järva area and an inventory of other positive experiences in other parts of Sweden and Europe.

This was conducted during the autumn of 2011. Study trips have been made to Uppsala, Gothenburg and Malmö within Sweden, and London, Copenhagen and Paris outside Sweden. Common to these cities is that they have experienced similar problems and thus have experience in handling social unrest and riots.

A summary of risk areas and scenario analyses 2012–2015

Document type: 
Report
Publisher / Publication: 
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB)
Abstract: 

The report presents a comprehensive overview of the different risks Sweden faces, risks which could have a serious impact on key Swedish national values of protection: human life and health, societ

y’s functionality, economy and the environment, democracy, rule of law, and human rights and freedoms, and national sovereignty. For the purpose of clarity, MSB has categorised the risks into four main categories. The four main categories are: natural hazards, major accidents, disruption to technical infrastructure and supply systems, and antagonistic hazards. The types of risk that could arise, their impact, examples of past incidents, and the responsibility in relation to these risks are discussed for each category. Where MSB has conducted a scenario analysis in relation to the risk area, the results of this are presented after the initial risk description. Each scenario has been analysed based on the capability of society to prevent and respond to the scenario in respect of its potential impact on Sweden’s national values of protection. Each analysis also includes a discussion related to the likelihood, sensitivity, and uncertainties pertaining to the scenario.

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